Does rebirth or reincarnation occur in Hinduism?
Does it occur?
Yes, it does. As per Bhagavad Gita:
jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṁ janma mṛtasya ca [BG- 2.27]
- Death is certain after birth and birth is certain after death.
Will everyone be reborn?
No, not every one will reborn. One who attains liberation (merges in the absolute or attains God) will not reborn. So the Gita says:
mām upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate [BG - 8.16]
- But after attaining Me, O son of Kunti, rebirth doesn't take place.
Are people always reborn as people?
Not necessarily. Depending upon karma a jivatma (spirit) may reborn in the body of other animals. As per Shrimad Bhgagavatam:
bhūtāni tais tair nija-yoni-karmabhir
bhavanti kāle na bhavanti sarvaśaḥ [SB - 7.2.41]
In course of time every being receives a material body as per his corresponding actions.
So also says the Upanishad:
sa viśvarūpastriguṇastrivartmā prāṇādhipaḥ saṃcarati svakarmabhiḥ [Sve. Up. - 5.7]
Taking all forms under the influence of threefold nature (goodness, passion and ignorance) taking threefold paths (dharma, adharma, knowledge) the self wanders about due to his own actions.
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