Mantras, Prayer for Health?
There are some special types of Stotras called Kavachas (literally "armours"), where the presiding deity is requested to protect the devotee's various body parts. So, possibly you can take help of them. Recitation of these Kavachas will help increase the well-being of the corresponding body parts.
These Kavachams are mostly found in the Tantras. I am giving here two such examples.
Srunu devi pravakshyami Kavacham sarva sidhitham,
Padithwa padayithwa cha naro muchyathe sankadath., 1
Oh Devi, I am telling you the armour which gets you everything, Reading or making others read, men get rid of all their sorrows.
Ajnathwa kavacham devi durga mantram cha yojayeth,
Sa cha apnothi balam thasya pancha nagam vrajeth puna., 2
If he who does not know, learns this Kavacham, Along with the Durga mantram, He would add to himself the strength, Of the five serpents again.
Umadevi sira pathu, lalalde soola dharini,
Chakshshi kesari pathu, karnou cha dwara vasini., 3
Let Uma devi protect my head, Let my forehead be protected by her who carries the soola, Let the lion protect my eyes, And let her who lives near the gate protect my ears.
Sugandha nasike pathu, vadanam sarva dharini,
Jihwa chandika devi, greevam soupathrika thadha., 4
Let she who is like incense protect my nose, Let she who carries everything protect my face, Let Chandika devi protect my toungue, Let Soupathrika protect my neck.
Sri Shiva uvacha:- Lord Shiva said:-
1.Pathakam dahanam nama kavacham sarva kamadham,
Srunu Parvathi vakshyami thava snehath prakasitham
This which is named as Armour burns sinful crime, And Oh Parvathi, please hear , for I tell you this to exhibit my love towards you.
2.Pathakam dhanasyasyaa Sadashiva Rishi smrutha,
Chandho anushtup , devatha cha bhuvaneswari prakeerthithaa,
Dharma artha kama moksheshu viniyoga prakeerthithaa.
For that which burns away crime, the sage is Lord Sadashiva, The meter is Anushtup , the Goddess about which it sings is Bhavaneswari, And it leads to Dharma, wealth , passion and salvation.
3.Iym Bheejam may sira pathu , hreem bheejam vadanam mma,
Sreem bheejam kati desanthu , sarvangam bhuvaneswari.
The root “iym” may protect my head , The root “hreem” may protect my face , The root “Sreem” may protect my waist, And Goddess Bhuvaneswari may protect all my limbs.
NOTE:- For the full Stotrams/Kavachams you have to visit the corresponding links. Only portions of them are produced here.
Also, I have given here Kavachas related to the Mother Goddess only. That does not mean Kavachas are available for Her only. You can get such Kavachas for all other deities as well. So, choose according to your Ista Devata and recite them.
According to a book called Tantrokta Varidhi (I have a hard copy) chanting the following Mantra 18/108 times, in front of an image of Goddess Durga, gives good health among other benefits.
The Mantra is from the Devi Argala Stotra (which is part of the Devi Mahatyam from the Markandeya Purana):
देहि सौभाग्यमारोग्यं देहि देवि परं सुखम् ।
रूपं देहि जयं देहि यशो देहि द्विषो जहि ॥१३॥
Dehi Saubhaagyam-Aarogyam Dehi Devi Param Sukham |
Ruupam Dehi Jayam Dehi Yasho Dehi Dvisso Jahi ||13||
Meaning: 13.1: O Devi, Please Bestow on me Welfare and Prosperity, along with Health and freedom from Diseases; O Devi, Please Give me the Highest Joy, 13.2: O Devi, Please Grant me (Spiritual) Beauty, Please Grant me (Spiritual) Victory, Please Grant me (Spiritual) Glory and Please Destroy my (Inner) Enemies.
Note that Arogyam means freedom from diseases.
As per request, here is an update.
This post has a Puranic verse, according to which, for health one needs to specifically pray to Lord Surya.
And,one of the most well-known Surya Sloka is found in the Navagraha Stotra (composed by Veda Vyasa):
Japa Kusuma Samkaasham Kaashya-peyam Mahaa-dyutim
Tamorim Sarva-papaghnam Pranatosmin Divakaram ||
Sun (Soorya-Ravi) I pray to the Sun, the day-maker, destroyer of all sins, the enemy of darkness, of great brilliance, the descendent of Kaashyapa, the one who shines like the japaa flower.
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