Why is Devi Ambika called Lord Shiva’s sister in Yajurveda?


First, we have to understand who is the feminine version of Rudra? Maruts are also said to be the children of Rodasī (consort of Rudra) and the same hymn distinctly addresses Rudra as their father RV5.57. Rudra is not necessarily a single entity or a group because of the unique nature of Rudra to manifest across various concepts and divinities.Please note that the term trayambakam, with regard to appearance, means three eyes. With regard to nature, ambaka means Ritu (season) and Ambikā represents Autumn or harvest season. Amba+ka also means mother and sister. Ambika is given to Devi Parvati as her title because She is the Pāraśakti. If you check Durga Suktam of Rig Veda you will see that, all that is śakti is She, all reality and creation are Her, all Maya is her, all that is feminine (not just biological) is Her, like Land, rivers, seasons, dawn (Uṣas) prapancha, jagath is her. Why?

वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये । जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ।। “I bow to the mother and the father of the world, Pārvatī and Parameśvara (Ṥiva), who are inseparably conjoined, just like a word and its meaning are inseparably conjoined for the purpose of comprehension.” ~Raghuvansham by Kalidas

Similarly, Śrī Adi Śankaracharya said:

माता च पार्वती देवी पिता देवो महेश्वरः बान्धवाः शिवभक्ताश्च स्वदेशो भुवनत्रयम् My mother is Devi Parvati, my father is the divine Maheśvaram (the supreme authority); all who worship the ever auspiciousness (Śiva) are my relatives, in this land and all the three worlds. ~Annapurāstakam by Śrī Adi Śankaracharya

Can the above be backed by Vedas? Sure, here is the answer:

भुवनस्य पितरं गीर्भिराभी रुद्रं दिवा वर्धया रुद्रमक्तौ ।बृहंतमृष्वमजरं सुषुम्नमृधग्घुवेम कविनेषितासः ॥ Of all dimensions/celestial mansions (भुवन) are your progeny (गर्भिन्) and you the father/source (पित), oh Rudra (रुद्र), by day/dawn (दिवा) and by dusk/night ( रुद्रमक्तौ ) you encompass (वर्ध) | Oh great and honorable and timeless/ageless (बृहंतमृ + ऋष्व + अजरं), most gracious(सु-सुम्न), unconditional one, we/rishis sing our poetic hymns (कविने) to the Supreme (इषितासः/iṣitāsaḥ). RV6.49.10

सथिरेभिरङगैः पुरुरूप उग्रो बभ्रुः शुक्रेभिः पिपिशेहिरण्यैः |ईशानादस्य भुवनस्य भूरेर्न वा उ योषद रुद्रादसुर्यम || You are well/completely (अङ्ग) established/sustainer (स्थिरेभिः) with multiple/diverse forms (पुरुऽरूपः), You are fierce (उग्रः), yet pure and luminous (शुक्र+भिः), with reddish brown and tawny hue (बभ्रु), all-encompassing (पिपि+श) brilliance (हिरण्यैः) | You are the sovereign authority (ईशानात्) of all realms/worlds (भुवनस्य), oh Great one (भूरि), You Rudra (रुद्रा +त्) the Divine spiritual head(सुर्यम्) RV 2.33.9 Please note: अङ्ग here is not hands or fingers but is a stressing adjective refers to Confirmation or solicitation. शुक्र means clear/white/opaque, hence the name śukreśvara linga of Varanasi.सुर्यम् means Godhead Rig Vedā 2.33.9/6.49.10

Oh Prajāpati, none other than thee to comprehend all that is created and its forms, to fulfill our heart’s desire; I offer my oblations to thee, your father and your sire is thy? Praise to that Rudra, the abode/lord of all riches, most vital supreme of names, I offer my oblations to thee! Sukla Yajur Vedā Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 10.20

The above gave rise to sloka 4, Chap 3 in the Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad (one of the 18 primary Upaniṣhads):

यो देवानां प्रभवश्चोद्भवश्च विश्वाधिपो रुद्रो महर्षिः।हिरण्यगर्भं जनयामास पूर्वं स नो बुद्ध्या शुभया संयुनक्तु॥ He is (यो) the creator/source (प्रभव) of the emergence (उद्भवः) of all Deva’s/Divinity (देवा+नां) and the highest of Rishis (महर्षिः) and the supreme owner over entirety ( विश्व+अधिपो ). He is the cause of time (जनया+अमस) to the brilliant/golden womb/the source of creation (हिरण्यगर्भं), prior (पूर्वं) to celestial heavens and us (स – नो) and the one only (शुभया) to bestow/endow (संयुनक्त+ उ) knowledge and intelligence (बुद्ध्या) Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.2

So, as we can see, companion (partner) or the one who comes along (sister) are more human and bilogical terms and after reading the above such translations shouldn't be take literally and be lowered to mere biological (flesh/blood) relations.

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