Was Daitya king Bali present during the Samudra Manthan? If so then how was it possible? Please check the details
Yes, Bali was there during the churning of the ocean. He led the rakshasas during the churning. He took the Uccaiḥśravā, the white horse generated from the milky ocean.
tata uccaiḥśravā nāma hayo ’bhūc candra-pāṇḍuraḥ |
tasmin baliḥ spṛhāṁ cakre nendra īśvara-śikṣayā ||
Thereafter, a horse named Uccaiḥśravā, which was as white as the moon, was generated. Bali Mahārāja desired to possess this horse, and Indra, the King of heaven, did not protest, for he had previously been so advised by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. [Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 8.8.3]
It makes sense because the Kurma avatara was not the second incarnation of Vishnu. The famous order of the Vishnu's ten incarnations famously known as Dashavatar which is publicised is as follows:
Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parashu Rama, Bala Rama [in some versions, he is placed with Buddha], Krishna, Buddha, Kalki.
But, on the contrary, the order is not right. Also there are infinite incarnations of Lord Vishnu. We don't know all the incarnations. This is what Krishna Paramatma says in Bhagavad Gita.
bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna |
tānyahaṃ veda sarvāṇi na tvaṃ vettha parantapa || 5 ||
Many, many births both you and I have passed. I can remember all of them, but you cannot, O subduer of the enemy.
Similarly, in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Canto 1 chapter 3.
अवतारा हि असङ्ख्येया हरेः सत्त्व-निधेर् द्विजाः
यथाविदासिनः कुल्याः सरसः स्युः सहस्रशः
avatārā hi asaṅkhyeyā hareḥ sattva-nidher dvijāḥ
yathāvidāsinaḥ kulyāḥ sarasaḥ syuḥ sahasraśaḥ
O brāhmaṇas, the incarnations of the Lord are innumerable, like rivulets flowing from inexhaustible sources of water.
There are 24 important incarnations mentioned in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Garuda Purana mentions other incarnations besides these.
Now, the chronological order of Dashavatara is mentioned in this answer by TheDestroyer where manvantaras are also described.
The chronological order of the incarnations(in present Sweta Varaha Kalpa) mentioned in the question are:
Varaha - At beginning of Varaha Kalpa to rescue the earth and also to slay Hiranyaksha.
Narasimha - Tamasa Manvantara i.e., fourth manvantara.
Kurma - Chakshusha Manvantara i.e., sixth manvantara
Mohini - Chakshusha Manvantara i.e., sixth manvantara
Vamana - Vaivasvata Manvantara i.e., seventh manvantara.
I think it makes sense now.
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