Madhusūdana Sarasvatī (c.1540–1640) was an Indian philosopher in the Advaita Vedānta tradition. He was the disciple of Viśveśvara Sarasvatī and Mādhava Sarasvatī, and is the most celebrated name in the annals of the great debate between Dvaita abd Advaita schools of Vedanta.
The Nyayamruta of Vyasatirtha, a text criticising the Advaita view, caused a furore in the Advaita community resulting in a series of scholarly debates over centuries.
Madhusūdana composed Advaitasiddhi, a line-by-line refutation of Nyayamruta. In response to Advaitasiddhi, the Dvaita scholars, Vyasa Ramacharya, and Ananda Bhattaraka, wrote Nyayamruta Tarangini and Nyayamruta Kantakoddhara and challenged Madhusūdana Sarasvatī.