मां हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य येऽपि स्युः पापयोनयः |
स्त्रियो वैश्यास्तथा शूद्रास्तेऽपि यान्ति परां गतिम् ||९-३२||


māṃ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye.api syuḥ pāpayonayaḥ .
striyo vaiśyāstathā śūdrāste.api yānti parāṃ gatim ||9-32||



9.32. O son of Prtha, even those who are of sinful birth, [besides] women, men of working class, and the members of the fourth caste-even they, having taken refuge in Me, attain the highest goal.

Shri Purohit Swami

9.32 For even the children of sinful parents, and those miscalled the weaker sex, and merchants, and labourers, if only they will make Me their refuge, they shall attain the Highest.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

9.32 See Comment under 9.34

Sri Ramanuja

9.32 - 9.33 Women, Vaisyas and Sudras, and even those who are of sinful birth, can attain the supreme state by taking refuge in Me. How much more then the well-born Brahmanas and royal sages who are devoted to me! Therefore, roayl sage that you are, do worship Me, as you have come to this transient and joyless world stricken by the threefold afflictions.

Sri Krsna now describes the nature of Bhakti:

Sri Shankaracharya

9.32 Hi, for; O son of Prtha, ye api, even those; papayonayah syuh, who are born of sin;-as to who they are, the Lord says-striyah, women; vaisyah, Vaisyas, tatha, as also; sudrah, Sudras; te api, even they; yanti, reach, go to; the param, highest; gatim, Goal vyapasritya, by taking shelter; mam, under Me-by accepting Me as their refuge.

Swami Adidevananda

9.32 By taking refuge in Me even men of evil birth, women, Vaisyas and also Sudras attain the supreme state.

Swami Gambirananda

9.32 For, O son of Prtha, even those who are born of sin-women, Vaisyas, as also Sudras [S.’s construction of this portion is: women, Vaisyas as also Sudras, and even others who are born of sin (i.e., those who are born low and are of vile deeds, viz Mlecchas, Pukkasas and others). M.S. also takes papa-yonayah (born of sin) as a separate phrase, and classifies women and others only as those darred from Vedic study, etc.-Tr.]-, even they reach the highest Goal by taking shelter under Me.

Swami Sivananda

9.32 For, taking refuge in Me, they also who, O Arjuna, may be of a sinful birth women, Vaisyas as well as Sudras attain the Supreme Goal.


Swami Sivananda

9.32 माम् Me? हि indeed? पार्थ O Partha? व्यपाश्रित्य taking refuge in? ये who? अपि even? स्युः may be? पापयोनयः of sinful birth? स्त्रियः women? वैश्याः Vaisyas? तथा also? शूद्राः Sudras? ते they? अपि also? यान्ति attain? पराम् the Supreme? गतिम् Goal.Commentary Chandalas or outcastes are of a sinful birth. Women and Sudras are darred by social rules from the study of the Vedas. What is wanted is devotion. There is no need for family traditions. The elephant Gajendra remembered Me with devotion and attained Me in spite of his being an animal. The lowest of the low and the vilest of the vile can attain Me if they have faith and devotion? if they sing and repeat My Name and if they think of Me always and think of no worldy object.Prahlada was a demon and yet by his devotion forced Me to incarnate as Narasimha. Birth is immaterial. Devotion is everything. The Gopis attained Me through their devotion. Kamsa and Ravana attained Me through fear. Sisupala reached Me through hatred. Narada? Dhruva? Akrura? Suka? Sanatkumara and others attined Me through their devotion. Nandan? a man of low caste but a great devotee of Lord Siva? had direct vision of the Lord in Chidambaram in South India. Raidas? a cobbler? was a great devotee. In the spiritual life or in the Adhyatmic sphere all the external distinctions of caste? colour and creed disappear altogether. Shabari? though a Bhilni (a tribe) by birth? was a great devotee of Lord Rama.Hindu scriptures are full of such instances. Hinduism does not restrict salvation to any one group or section of humanity. All can attain God if they have devotion.