अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति | नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः ||४-४०||
ajñaścāśraddadhānaśca saṃśayātmā vinaśyati . nāyaṃ loko.asti na paro na sukhaṃ saṃśayātmanaḥ ||4-40||
4.40. But he, who is ignorant and has no faith, perishes, with his self (mind) full of doubts. Neither this world nor the other, nor happiness is for a person, who is by nature is full of doubts.
Shri Purohit Swami
4.40 But the ignorant man, and he who has no faith, and the sceptic are lost. Neither in this world nor elsewhere is there any happiness in store for him who always doubts.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
4.39-40 Sraddhavan etc. Ajnah etc. Here the idea of the passage is this : The incoming of faith and the performance of activities intending this [knowledge], both spring up soon no doubt, if one, being a believer, entertains no doubt. Therefore, one should remain being favoured by the preceptors and the scriptures, and not entertaining any doubt. For, the doubt is a destroyer of everything [good]. Indeed a person with doubt knows nothing, because he does not have faith. Hence one should remain without doubt. The subject matter that has been elaborated in this entire chapter is now summarised by a pair of the [following] verses :
4.40 ‘The ignorant,’ i.e., one devoid of knowledge received through instruction, ’the faithless’ or one who has no faith in developing this knowledge taught to him, i.e., who does not strive to progress ickly, and ’the doubting one,’ i.e., one who is full of doubts in regard to the knowledge taught - such persons perish, are lost. When this knowledge taught to him about the real nature of the self is doubted, then he loses this material world as also the next world. The meaning is that the ends of man, such as Dharma, Artha and Karma which constitute the material ends or fulfilments, are not achieved by such a doubting one. How then can man’s supreme end, release be achieved by such a doubting one? For all the ends of human life can be achieved through the actions which are prescribed by the Sastras, but their performance reires the firm conviction that the self is different from the body. Therefore, even a little happiness does not come to the person who has a doubting mind concerning the self.
4.40 Ajnah, one who is ignorant, who has not known the Self; and asradda-dhanah, who is faithless; [Ast. adds here: guruvakya-sastresu avisvasavan, who has no faith in the instructions of the teacher and the scriptures.-Tr.] and samsaya-atma, who has a doubting mind; vinasyati, perishes. Although the ignorant and the faithless get ruined, yet it is not to the extent that a man with a doubting mind does. As for one with a doubting mind, he is the most vicious of them all. How? Na ayam lokah, neither this world which is familiar; na, nor also; parah, the next world; na sukham, nor happiness; asti, exist; samsaya-atmanah, for one who has a doubting mind. For doubt is possible even with regard to them! Therefore one should not entertain doubt. Why?
4.40 The ignorant, the faithless and the doubting one peirsh; for the doubting one there is neither this world, nor that beyond, nor happiness.
4.40 One who is ignorant and faithless, and has a doubting mind perishes. Neither this world nor the next nor happiness exists for one who has a doubting mind.
4.40 The ignorant the faithless, the doubting self goes to destruction; there is neither this world nor the other, nor happiness for the doubting.
4.40 अज्ञः the ignorant? च and? अश्रद्दधानः the faithless? च and? संशयात्मा the doubting self? विनश्यति goes to destruction? न not? अयम् this? लोकः world? अस्ति is? न not? परः the next? न not? सुखम् happiness? संशयात्मनः for the doubting self.Commentary The ignorant one who has no knowledge of the Self. The man without faith one who has no faith in his own self? in the scriptures and the teachings of his Guru.A man of doubting mind is the most sinful of all. His condition is very deplorable. He is full of doubts as regards the next world. He does not rejoice in this world also? as he is very suspicious. He has no happiness.