यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् | नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य कुतोऽन्यः कुरुसत्तम ||४-३१||
yajñaśiṣṭāmṛtabhujo yānti brahma sanātanam . nāyaṃ loko.astyayajñasya kuto.anyaḥ kurusattama ||4-31||
4.31. The eaters of the sacrifice-ordained (or sacrificial remnant) nectar, attain the eternal Brahman. [Even] this world is not for a non-sacrificer, how can there be the other ? O best of the Kurus !
Shri Purohit Swami
4.31 Tasting the nectar of immortality, as the reward of sacrifice, they reach the Eternal. This world is not for those who refuse to sacrifice; much less the other world.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
4.31 Yajna-etc. They enjoy the nectar of the Parananda and the Nirananda, which is of the nature of relaxing in their own Self and which has been ordained-i.e., brought about - by the sacrifice and which is the remnant of the sacrifice in the form of satisfying [the deities of] their own sense-organs. Yet, remaining as Brahman Itself, they get themselves mixed [in this mundane life] to their heart-content.
Here we refrain [ourselves] from the free talk of clearly disclosing what is highly secret. Further, here a good amount of tasty secret has been kept well hidden. Yet, this becomes an object of [actual] chewing and [thus] becomes the cause for enjoying (realising) what is Real, in the case of those persons whose [bodily and internal] elements have been ealised by the powerful medicines of the tradition learnt from the revered teachers, pleased with service, laden with very assiduous devotion.
In this context other explanations have been offered by [other] commentators. However, let the intellectuals weigh and decide for themselves, those explanations and the etymological interpretations offered by our revered preceptors. So, look ! What is the use of the sport of criticising the statements of those commentators ? Hence let us stick to only what we have begun with.
4.31 He ‘who offers no sacrifices,’ i.e., he who does not devote himself to obligatory and occasional actions, preceded by the performance of the ‘great sacrifices’ etc., will not be able to achieve human ends which are associated with the material world and are called by the names of virtue, wealth and worldly satisfactions. How then can the man’s supreme end called release (Moksa), which is other than these, be attained? As Moksa, man’s supreme end, has been mentioned, other objectives different from it, are named ’this world.’ That is, indeed, the material world.
[Perhaps the idea is that all types of sacrificers should perform the Panca-Maha-Yajnas, and take the remnants of it as their daily food. Only in this way can we give some meaning to ‘ambrosial food’ connected with the performance of all the various kinds of sacrifice mentioned in the above verses.]
4.31 Yajna-sista-amrta-bhujah, those who partake of the nectar left over after a sacrifice, i.e. those who, after performing the sacrifices described above, eat, during the leisure after the sacrifice, the food called nectar, as prescribed by the injunctions; yanti, reach; sanatanam brahma, the eternal Brahman. For the sake of consistency (with the Upanisads) it is understood that if they (the sacrificers) are seekers of liberation, (then they reach Brahman) in due course of time. [The Upanisads describe the different stages through which those who do good deeds and practise meditation have to pass before reaching the alified Brahman after death. For liberation there is need also of purification of the heart, Thus, they reach Brahman by stages, and not immediately after death. (See Ch. 8.5 and subseent portion; also, Br. 4.3.35 to 4.4.25, etc.)] Even ayam lokah, this world, common to all beings; na asti, ceases to exist; ayajnasya, for one who does not perform sacrifices, for him who does not have to his credit even a single one of the above sacrifices. Kutah anyah, what to speak of the other world which can be achieved through special disciplines; kurusattama, O best among the Kurus!
4.31 This world is not for him who makes no sacrifice. How then the other, O Arjuna?
4.31 Those who partake of the nectar left over after a sacrifice, reach the eternal Brahman. This world ceases to exist for one who does not perform sacrifices. What to speak of the other (world), O best among the Kurus (Arjuna)!
4.31 Those who eat the remnants of the sacrifice, which are like nectar, go to the eternal Brahman. This world is not for the man who does not perform sacrifice; how then can he have the other, O Arjuna?
4.31 यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजः eaters of the nectar – the remnants of the sacrifice? यान्ति go? ब्रह्म Brahman? सनातनम् eternal? न not? अयम् this? लोकः world? अस्ति is? अयज्ञस्य of the nonsacrificer? कुतः how? अन्यः other? कुरुसत्तम O best of the Kurus.Commentary They go to the eternal Brahman in course of time after attaining the knowledge of the Self through purification of the mind by performing the above sacrifices. He who does not perform any of these is not fit even for this miserable world. How then can he hope to get a better world than this (Cf.III.13)