अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे | प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायामपरायणाः ||४-२९||
apāne juhvati prāṇaṃ prāṇe.apānaṃ tathāpare . prāṇāpānagatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāmaparāyaṇāḥ ||4-29||
4.29. - 4.30. [Some sages] offer the prana into the apana; like-wise others offer the apana into the prana. Having controlled both the courses of the prana and apana, the same sages, with their desire fulfilled by the above activities, and with their food restricted, offer the pranas into pranas. All these persons know what sacrifices are and have their sins destroyed by sacrifices.
Shri Purohit Swami
4.29 There are some who practise control of the Vital Energy and govern the subtle forces of Prana and Apana, thereby sacrificing their Prana unto Apana, or their Apana unto Prana.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
4.29 See Comment under 4.30
4.29 - 4.30 Other Karma Yogins are devoted to the practice of breath control. They are of three types because of the differences in inhalation, exhalation and stoppage of breath. Puraka (inhalation) is that in which the inward breath is sacrificed in the outward breath. Recaka (exhalation) is that when the outward breath is sacrificed in the inward breath. Kumbhaka (stoppage of breath) is that when the flow of both inward and outward breaths is stopped. The clause, restricting of diet, applies to all the three types of persons devoted to the control of breath.
All these, according to their liking and capacity are engaged in performing the various kinds of Karma Yoga beginning from the sacrifice of material objects to the control of breath. They know and are devoted to sacrifices comprising obligatory and occasional rituals preceded by the performance of ’the great sacrifices’ (Panca-Maha-Yajna), as alluded to in ‘Creating men along with the sacrifices’ (3.10). Because of this only, their sins are done away with. Those who are engaged in Karma Yoga by sustaining their bodies only by the ambrosia of sacrificial remains will go to the eternal Brahman. ‘Go to Brahman’ here means realise the self which has Brahman for Its soul.
4.29 Pranayama-parayanah, constantly practising control of the vital forces-i.e. they practise a form of pranayama called Kumbhaka (stopping the breath either inside or outside) [‘Three sorts of motion of Pranayama (control of the vital forces) are, one by which we draw the breath in, another by which we throw it out, and the third action is when the breath is held in the lungs or stopped from entering the lungs.’-C.W., Vol.I, 1962, p. 267. Thus, there are two kinds of Kumbhaka-internal and external.]-; prana-apana-gati ruddhva, by stopping the movements of the outgoing and the incoming breaths-the outgoing of breath (exhalation) through the mouth and the nostrils is the movement of the Prana; as opposed to that, the movement of Apana is the going down (of breath) (inhalation); these constitute the prana-apana-gati, movements of Prana and Apana; by stopping these; some juhvati, offer as a sacrifice; pranam, the outgoing breath, which is the function of Prana; apane, in the incoming breath, which is the function of Apana-i.e. they practised a form of pranayama called Puraka (‘filling in’); while tatha apare, still others; offer apanam, the incoming breath; prane, in the outgoing breath, i.e. they practise a form of pranayama called Recaka (’emptying out’). [Constantly practising control of the vital, forces, they perform Kumbhaka after Recaka and Puraka.]
4.29 Others, with restricted diet, are devoted to the control of breath. Some sacrifice the inward breath in the outward breath. Similarly others sacrifice the outward breath in the inward breath. Some others, stopping the flow of both the inward breath and the outward, sacrifice the inward breaths and outward breaths.
4.29 Constantly practising control of the vital forces by stopping the movements of the outgoing and the incoming breaths, some offer as a sacrifice the outgoing breath in the incoming breath; while still others, the incoming breath in the outgoing breath.
4.29 Others offer as sacrifice the outgoing breath in the incoming, and the incoming in the outgoing, restraining the course of the outgoing and the incoming breaths, solely absorbed in the restraint of the breath.
4.29 अपाने in the outgoing breath? जुह्वति sacrifice? प्राणम् incoming breath? प्राणे in the incoming breath? अपानम् outgoing breath? तथा thus? अपरे others? प्राणापानगती courses of the outgoing and incoming breaths? रुद्ध्वा restraining? प्राणायामपरायणाः solely absorbed in the restraint of breath.Commentary Some Yogis practise Puraka (inhalation)? some Yogis practise Rechaka (exhalation)?,and some Yogis practise Kumbhaka (retention of breath).The five subPranas and the other Pranas are merged in the chief Prana (MukhyaPrana) by the practice of Pranayama. When the Prana is controlled? the mind also stops its wanderings and becomes steady the senses are also thinned out and merged in the Prana. It is through the vibration of Prana that the activities of the mind and the senses are kept up. If the Prana is controlled? the mind? the intellect and the senses cease to function.