द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे |
स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः ||४-२८||


dravyayajñāstapoyajñā yogayajñāstathāpare .
svādhyāyajñānayajñāśca yatayaḥ saṃśitavratāḥ ||4-28||



4.28. [These] are [respectively] the performs of sacrifices with material objects, the performers of sacrifices with penance, and the performers of sacrifices with Yoga. Likewise [there are] yet other ascetics with rigid vows whose sacrifices are the svadhyaya-knowledge.

Shri Purohit Swami

4.28 And yet others offer as their sacrifice wealth, austerities and meditation. Monks wedded to their vows renounce their scriptural learning and even their spiritual powers.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

4.27-28 Sarvani etc. Dravyayajnak etc. Again all the activities of their sense-organs, the activities of their mind, and the activities of their vital airs, such as issuing through the mouth and nose, driving down the urine etc., other [seekers] established in the fire of concentration, named Yoga, which is the means for subduing the self i.e., the mind, and which is set ablaze by i.e., to be filled with, knowledge. The idea is this : With their intellect that has completely abandoned all other activities due to their concentration on the object, they receive the object that is being perceived on conceived. That has been stated in the Sivopanisad :

‘When the intellect, concentrated on a certain object, not rejected, would not go to another object, at that time the meditation, remaining in the core of the objects, blossoms very much.’

Thus the Yoga-sacrifices are explained. So far the performers of the material-object-sacrifices, the austerity-sacrifices, and the yoga-sacrifices have been defined. Those, who are the performers of the svadhyaya-knowledge-sacrifices are defined now [as] -

Sri Ramanuja

4.28 Some Karma Yogins perform the sacrifice of material objects. Some worship the gods with materials honestly acired. Some practise charity, some engage themselves in sacrifices and in making oblations into the sacred fire. All these perform sacrifice with material objects. Some do the sacrifice of austerity by devoting themselves to Krcchra, Candrayana, fast, etc. Others perform the sacrifice of Yoga. Some devote themselves to making pilgrimages to sacred sanctuaries and holy places. Here the term Yoga means pilgrimages to sacred sancturaries and holy places as the context relates to aspects of Karma Yoga. Some are devoted to recitation of Vedic texts and some to learning their meaning. They are all devoted to the practice of self-control and of strict vows, i.e., they are men to steady resolution.

Sri Shankaracharya

4.28 Tatha, similarly; apare, others; are dravya-yajnah, perfomers of sacrifices through wealth-those sacrificers who spend wealth (dravya) in holy places under the idea of performing sacrifices; tapo-yajnah, performers of sacrifices through austerity, men of austerity, to whom austerity is a sacrifice; [This is according to Ast.-Tr.] yogayajnah, performers of sacrifice through yoga-those to whom the yoga consisting in the control of the vital forces, withdrawal of the organs, etc., is a sacrifice; and svadhyaya-jnana-yajnah, performers of sacrifices through study and knowledge. Sacrificers through study are those to whom the study of Rg-veda etc. accroding to rules is a sacrifice. And sacrificers through knowledge are those to whom proper understanding of the meaing of the scriptures is a sacrifice. Others are yatayah, ascetics, who are deligent; samsita-vratah, in following severe vows. Those whose vows (vratah) have been fully sharpened (samsita), made very rigid, are samsita-vratah. [Six kinds of sacrifices have been enumerated in this verse.] Further,

Swami Adidevananda

4.28 Self-controlled and firm of resolve, others perform the sacrifice of material objects or austerities or Yoga; while others offer their scriptural study and knowledge.

Swami Gambirananda

4.28 Similarly, others are performers of sacrifices through wealth, through austerity, through yoga, and through study and knowledge; others are ascetics with severe vows.

Swami Sivananda

4.28 Others again offer wealth, austerity and Yoga as sacrifice, while the ascetics of self-restraint and rigid vows offer study of scriptures and knowledge as sacrifice.


Swami Sivananda

4.28 द्रव्ययज्ञाः those who offer wealth as sacrifice? तपोयज्ञाः those who offer austerity as sacrifice? योगयज्ञाः those who offer Yoga as sacrifice? तथा thus? अपरे others? स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाः those who offer study and knowledge as sacrifice? च and? यतयः ascetics or anchorites (persons of selfrestraint)? संशितव्रताः persons of rigid vows.Commentary Some do sacrifice by distributing their wealth to the deserving as charity some offer their Tapas (austerities) as sacrifice some practise the eight limbs of Raja Yoga? viz.? Yama (the five great vows)? Niyama (the canons of conduct)? Asana (posture)? Pranayama (restraint of breath)? Pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses)? Dharana (concentration)? Dhyana (meditation) and Samadhi (superconscious state)? and offer this Yoga as a sacrifice some study the scriptures and offer it as sacrifice.