नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं कर्म ज्यायो ह्यकर्मणः |
शरीरयात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्ध्येदकर्मणः ||३-८||


niyataṃ kuru karma tvaṃ karma jyāyo hyakarmaṇaḥ .
śarīrayātrāpi ca te na prasiddhyedakarmaṇaḥ ||3-8||



3.8. You must perform your action which has been enjoined. For, action is superior to inaction; and even the maintenance of your body could not be properly accomplished through inaction.

Shri Purohit Swami

3.8 Do thy duty as prescribed, for action for duty’s sake is superior to inaction. Even the maintenance of the body would be impossible if man remained inactive.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

3.8 Niyatam etc. you must perform action which has been enjoined i.e., prescribed in the scriptures. For, even the just subsistence of body depends on action. Because -

Sri Ramanuja

3.8 ‘Obligatory’ (Niyatam) means ‘concomitant’ (Vyaptam); for action is concomitant with that which is conjoined with Prakrti or the body. The contact with Prakrti has arisen from beginingless subtle impressions (Vasanas). You must perform work, because the performance of action is easy and may not cause accidents by reason of its being obligatory. Action is superior to non-action, i.e., even to the devotee of Jnana. Because of the instruction at the beginning (of this context), ‘No man experiences freedom from activity’ (3.4), devotion to Jnana alone is indicated by the word, ‘Non-action’ (Akarma). Even in the case of one alified for devotion to Jnana, devotion to Karma indeed is better because Jnana-nistha is difficult to perform and liable to accidents, as it has not been practised previoulsy and as it does not come to one naturally. Subseently it will be described how, one with the knowledge of the true nature of the self can carry on actions along with that knowledge. Conseently, we should take the meaning here to be that, because knowledge of the self too is included in Karma Yoga, this kind of Yoga is superior.

This statement on the superiority of activity (Karma Yoga) over Jnana Yoga is valid even when there is competency for one to adopt Jnana Yoga. For, if you abandon all activities to alify yourself for Jnana Yoga, then, for you, who is thus inactive while following Jnana Yoga, even the nourishment of the body, which is necessary even for Jnana-nistha, will not be achieved. The body has to be necessarily sustained until the means are executed to the full. Performing ‘great sacrifices’ with the help of honestly earned wealth, the body should be sustained by consuming the remainders left after such sacrifices. This is made clear from scriptural texts like, ‘When the food is pure, the Sattva (mind or inner organ) becomes pure; when the Sattva is pure, then the remembrance (meditation) will be steady’ (Cha. U., 7.26.2). Sri Krsna himself will declare: ‘The sinful ones who cook food for their own sake eat sin (3.13).

Conseently,even the sustenance of the body will not be possible in the case of one who practises Jnana-nistha, and does not act. In other ways also Karma Yoga is superior to Jnana Yoga even in respect of one who is alified for Jnana-nistha; for, obligatory and occasional rites like the ‘great sacrifices’ must be carried out by one who follows Jnana Yoga too, as he has to sustain the body until he attains perfection. Besides, the understanding of the true nature of the self is incorporated in Karma Yoga, as it involves the contemplation of the self as being a non-agent. It is also in line with the nature of life (Prakrti). Karma Yoga, is for these reasons easier and it is free from danger of downfall. Therefore, you must perform Karma Yoga only. This is the purport of the verse.

If it is contended that any action such as earning money implies ‘I-ness’, ‘My-ness’ etc., and will therefore be disturbing to the senses, and that such a person devoted often to works will be in bondage through subtle impressions of his acts, Sri Krsna says:

Sri Shankaracharya

3.8 Tvam, you, O Arjuna; kuru, perform; niyatam, the obligatory; karma, duties, those daily obligatory duties (nitya-karmas) or which one is competent (according to the scriptures), and which are not heard of [although no result of daily obligatory duties is mentioned in the scriptures, still Sankaracarya holds that it is either heaven or purification of the heart, because something done must have its conseence.-Tr.] as productive of any result; hi, for, from the point of view of result; karma, action; is jyayah, superior; akarmanah, to inaction, to non-performance (of duties). Why? Ca, and; akarmanah, through inaction; api, even; te sarira-yatra, the maintenance of your body; na prasiddhyet, will not be possible. Therefore, the distinction between action and in action is abvious in this world. ‘And as regards your ideea that action should not be udnertaken because it leads to bondage-that too is wrong.’ How?

Swami Adidevananda

3.8 You must perform your obligatory action; for action is superior to non-action (Jnana Yoga). For a person following non-action not even the sustentation of the body is possible.

Swami Gambirananda

3.8 You perform the obligatory duties, for action is superior to inaction. And, through inaction, even the maintenance of your body will not be possible.

Swami Sivananda

3.8 Do thou perform (thy) bounden duty, for action is superior to inaction and even the maintenance of the body would not be possible for thee by inaction.


Swami Sivananda

3.8 नियतम् bounden (prescribed or obligatory)? कुरु perform? कर्म action? त्वम् thou? कर्म action? ज्यायः superior? हि for? अकर्मणः than inaction? शरीरयात्रा maintenance of the body? अपि even? च and? ते thy? न not? प्रसिद्ध्येत् would be possible? अकर्मणः by inaction.Commentary Niyatam Karma is an obligatory duty which one is bound to perform. Thenonperformance of the bounden duties causes demerit. The performance of the obligatory duties is not a means for the attainment of a specific result. The performance does not cause any merit.Living itself involves several natural and unavoidable actions which have to be performed by all. It is ignorance to say? I can live doing nothing.