इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः |
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ||३-४२||


indriyāṇi parāṇyāhurindriyebhyaḥ paraṃ manaḥ .
manasastu parā buddhiryo buddheḥ paratastu saḥ ||3-42||



3.42. Different are the sense-organs [from their objects], they say; from the sense-organs different is the mind; from the mind too the intellect is different; what is different from the intellect is That (Self).

Shri Purohit Swami

3.42 It is said that the senses are powerful. But beyond the senses is the mind, beyond the mind is the intellect, and beyond and greater than intellect is He.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

3.42 See Comment under 3.43

Sri Ramanuja

3.42 The senses are called the important obstacles of knowledge, because when the senses keep operating on their objects, the knowledge of the self cannot arise. ‘The mind is higher than the senses’: even if the senses are withdrawn, if the Manas (mind) ruminates over sense objects, knowledge of the self cannot be had. ‘The intellect (Buddhi) is greater than the mind’, i.e., even if the mind is indifferent to sense objects, a perverted decision by the intellect can obstruct the dawn of the knowledge of the self. But even if all of them upto the intellect are ietened from their activity, still when desire, identified with will, originating from Rajas, is operating, it by itself obstructs the knowledge of the self by inducing the senses etc., to operate in their fields. Thus it is said here: ‘But what is greater than intellect is that.’ What is greater than the intellect - is desire. Such is the sense of the last sentence here.

Sri Shankaracharya

3.42 The learned ones ahuh, say; that indriyani, the five [Five sense-organs: of vision, hearning, taste, smell and touch; five motor-organs: hands, feet, speech, and for excretion and generation-these latter five are also understood in the present context.] organs-ear etc., are parani, superior, to the external, gross and limited body, from the point of view of subtlety, inner position, pervasiveness, etc. So also, manah, the mind, having the nature of thinking and doubting; [Sankalpa: will, volition, intention, thought, reflection, imangination, etc. vikalpa:doubt, uncertainly, indecision, suspicion, error, etc.-V.S.A.] is param, superior; indriyhyah, to the organs. Similarly, buddhih, the intellect, having the nature of determination; is para, superior; manasah, to the mind. And yah, the one who is innermost as compared with all the objects of perception ending with the intellect, and with regard to which Dweller in the body it has been said that desire, in association with its ‘abodes’ counting from the organs, deludes It by shrouding Knowledge; sah, that one; is tu, however; paratah, superior; buddheh, to the intellect- He, the supreme Self, is the witness of the intellect. [The portion, ‘with regard to which Dweller৷৷.the supreme Self,’ is translated from Ast. Which has the same reading here as the A.A. The G1. Pr. Makes the “abode’’ counting from the organs’ an adjective of ’the Dweller in the body’, and omits the portion, ‘is tu, however৷৷.buddheh, to the intellect’.-Tr.]

Swami Adidevananda

3.42 The senses are high, they say: the mind is higher than the senses; the intellect is higher than the mind; but what is greater than intellect is that (desire).

Swami Gambirananda

3.42 They say that the organs are superior (to the gross body); the mind is superior to the organs; but the intellect is superior to the mind. However, the one who is superior to the intellect is He.

Swami Sivananda

3.42 They say that the senses are superior (to the body); superior to the senses is the mind; superior to the mind is the intellect; one who is superior even to the intellect is He (the Self).


Swami Sivananda

3.42 इन्द्रियाणि the senses? पराणि superior? आहुः (they) say? इन्द्रियेभ्यः than the senses? परम् superior? मनः the mind? मनसः than the mind? तु but? परा superior? बुद्धिः intellect? यः who? बुद्धेः than the intellect? परतः greater? तु but? सः He.Commentary When compared with the physical body which is gross? external and limited? the senses are certainly superior as they are more subtle? internal and have a wider range of activity. The mind is superior to the senses? as the senses cannot do anything independently without the help of the mind. The mind can perform the functions of the five senses. The intellect is superior to the mind because it is endowed with the faculty of discrimination. When the mind is in a state of doubt? the intellect comes to its resuce. The Self? the Witness? is superior even to the intellect? as the intellect borrows its light from the Self.