दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः |
वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ||२-५६||
duḥkheṣvanudvignamanāḥ sukheṣu vigataspṛhaḥ .
vītarāgabhayakrodhaḥ sthitadhīrmunirucyate ||2-56||
2.56. He, whose mind is undisturbed in the midst of sorrows; who is free from desire in the midst of pleasures; and from whom longing, fear and wrath have totally gone-he is said to be a firm-minded sage.
Shri Purohit Swami
2.56 The sage, whose mind is unruffled in suffering, whose desire is not roused by enjoyment, who is without attachment, anger or fear - take him to be one who stands at that lofty level.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
2.56 Dukkhesu etc. Only that sage whose mental attitude is free from desire and hatred in the midst of pleasure and pain, and not anyone else, is a man-of-stabilized-intellect. This is also proper. For-
2.56 Even when there are reasons for grief like separation from beloved ones, his mind is not perturbed, i.e., he is not aggrieved. He has no longing to enjoy pleasures, i.e., even though the things which he likes are near him, he has no longing for them. He is free from desire and anger; desire is longing for objects not yet obtained; he is free from this. Fear is affliction produced from the knowledge of the factors which cause separation from the beloved or from meeting with that which is not desirable; he is free from this. Anger is a disturbed state of one’s own mind which produces affliction and which is aimed at another sentient being who is the cause of separation from the beloved or of confrontation with what is not desirable. He is free from this.
A sage of this sort, who constantly meditates on the self, is said to be of firm wisdom.
Then, the next state below this is described:
2.56 Moreover, that munih, monk [Sankaracarya identifies the monk with the man of realization.] ucyate, is then called; sthita-dhih, a man of steady wisdom; when anudvignamanah, his mind is unperturbed; duhkhesu, in sorrow when his mind remains unperturbed by the sorrows that may come on the physical or other planes [Fever, headache, etc. are physical (adhyatmika) sorrows; sorrows caused by tigers, snakes, etc. are environmental (adhibhautika) sorrows; those caused by cyclones, floods, etc. are super-natural (adhidaivika). Similarly, delights also may be experienced on the three planes.] ; so also, when he is vigata-sprhah, free from longing; sukhesu, for delights when he, unlike fire which flares up when fed with fuel etc., has no longing for delights when they come to him ; and vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah, has gone beyond attachment, fear and anger.
2.56 He whose mind is not perturbed in pain, who has no longing for pleasures, who is free from desire, fear and anger - he is called a sage of firm wisdom.
2.56 That monk is called a man of steady wisdom when his mind is unperturbed in sorrow, he is free from longing for delights, and has gone beyond attachment, fear and anger.
2.56 He whose mind is not shaken by adversity, who does not hanker after pleasures, and is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady wisdom.
2.56 दुःखेषु in adversity? अनुद्विग्नमनाः of unshaken mind? सुखेषु in pleasure? विगतस्पृहः withut hankering? वीतरागभयक्रोधः free from attachment? fear and anger? स्थितधीः of steady wisdom? मुनिः sage? उच्यते (he) is called.Commentary Lord Krishna gives His answer to the second part of Arjunas estion as to the conduct of a sage of steady wisdom in the 56th? 57th and 58th verses.The mind of a sage of steady wisdom is not distressed in calamities. He is not affected by the three afflictions (Taapas) – Adhyatmika (arising from diseases or disorders in ones own body)? Adhidaivika (arising from thunder? lightning? storm? flood? etc.)? and Adhibhautika (arising from scorpions? cobras? tigers? etc.). When he is placed in an affluent condition he does not long for sensual pleasures. (Cf.IV.10).