अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत |
अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ||२-२८||


avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyaktamadhyāni bhārata .
avyaktanidhanānyeva tatra kā paridevanā ||2-28||



2.28. O descendant of Bharata ! The beings have an unmanifest beginning, manifest middle and certainly the unmanifest end. On that account why mourning?

Shri Purohit Swami

2.28 The end and the beginning of beings are unknown. We see only the intervening formations. Then what cause is there for grief?

Sri Abhinav Gupta

2.28 Avyaktadini etc. Whether beings are permanent or impermanent, this much is certain : The person, who laments over a given object - as far as that person is concerned, that object is at the beginning unmanifest and at the end also it is unmanifest. Its manifestation in between is therefore a deviation from its natural state, Rather, there may be need to lament over the deviation from natural state and nor over the natural state [itself]. Further, whatever has been approved as its root cause, that itself permanently exhibits, within itself, a variety of different and endless creation, sustenance and absorption as its own manifold nature, in a set pattern. Hence what is the necessity for lamenting over the same nature of this (its effect) ? And enowed with the above mentioned nature-

Sri Ramanuja

2.28 Human beings etc., (i.e., bodies) exist as entities; their previous stages are unknown, their middle stages in the form of man etc., are known, and their (final) and future stages are unknown. As they thus exist in their own natural stages, there is no cause for grief.

After thus saying that there is no cause for grief even according to the view which identifies the body with the self, Sri Krsna proceeds to say that it is hard to find one who can be said to have truly perceived the Atman or spoken about It or heard about It or gained a true conception of It by hearing. For the Atman, which is actually different from the body, is of a wonderful nature.

Sri Shankaracharya

2.28 It is not reasonable to grieve even for beings which are constituted by bodies and organs, since ‘all beings remain unmanifest’ etc. (Bharata, O descendant of Bharata;) bhutani, all beings, avyaktaduni, remain unmainfest in the beginning. Those beings, viz sons, friends, and others, constituted by bodies and organs, [Another reading is karya-karana-sanghata, aggregates formed by material elements acting as causes and effects.-Tr.] who before their origination have unmanifestedness (avyakta), invisibility, nonperception, as their beginning (adi) are avyaktaadini. Ca, and; after origination, before death, they become vyakta-madhyani, manifest in the middle. Again, they eva, certainly; become avyakta-nidhanani, unmanifest after death. Those which have unmanifestness (avyakta), invisibility, as their death (nidhana) are avyakta-nidhanani. The idea is that even after death they verily attain unmanifestedness. Accordingly has it been said: ‘They emerged from invisibility, and have gone back to invisibility. They are not yours, nor are you theirs. What is this fruitless lamentation!’ (Mbh. St. 2.13). Ka, what; paridevana, lamentation, or what prattle, can there be; tatra, with regard to them, i.e. with regard to beings which are objects of delusion, which are invisible, (become) visible, (and then) get destroyed!

Swami Adidevananda

2.28 O Arjuna, beings have an unknown beginning, a known middle and an unknown end. What is there to grieve over in all this?

Swami Gambirananda

2.28 O descendant of Bharata, all beings remain unmanifest in the beginning;; they become manifest in the middle. After death they certainly become unmanifest. What lamentation can there be with regard to them?

Swami Sivananda

2.28 Beings are unmanifested in their beginning, manifested in their middle state, O Arjuna, and unmanifested again in their end. What is there to grieve about?


Swami Sivananda

2.28 अव्यक्तादीनि unmanifested in the beginning? भूतानि beings? व्यक्तमध्यानि manifested in their middle state? भारत O Bharata? अव्यक्तनिधनानि unmanifested again in the end? एव also? तत्र there? का what? परिदेवना grief.Commentary The physical body is a combination of the five elements. It is seen by the physical eyes only after the five elements have entered into such combination. After death? the body disintegrates and the five elements go back to their source it cannot be seen. Therefore? the body can be seen only in the middle state. The relationship as son? friend? teacher? father? mother? wife? brother and sister is formed through the body on account of attachment and Moha (delusion). Just as planks unite and separate in a river? just as pilgrims unite and separate in a public inn? so also fathers? mothers? sons and brothers unite and separate in this world. This world is a very big public inn. People unite and separate.There is no pot in the beginning and in the end. Even if you see the pot in the middle? you should think and feel that it is illusory and does not really exist. So also there is no body in the beginning and in the end. That which does not exist in the beginning and in the end must be illusory in the middle also. You must think and feel that the body does not really exist in the middle as well.He who thus understands the nature of the body and all human relationships based on it? will not grieve.