अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् | विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित्कर्तुमर्हति ||२-१७||
avināśi tu tadviddhi yena sarvamidaṃ tatam . vināśamavyayasyāsya na kaścitkartumarhati ||2-17||
2.17. And know That to be destructionsless, by Which all this (universe) is pervaded; no one is capable of causing destruction to this changeless One.
Shri Purohit Swami
2.17 The Spirit, which pervades all that we see, is imperishable. Nothing can destroy the Spirit.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
2.17 Avinasi etc [Here] tu is in the sense of ca ‘and’. So, ‘and’ the Soul is not of perishing nature.
2.17 Know that the self in its essential nature is imperishable. The whole of insentient matter, which is different (from the self), is pervaded by the self. Because of pervasiveness and extreme subtlety, the self cannot be destroyed; for every entity other than the self is capable of being pervaded by the self, and hence they are grosser than It. Destructive agents like weapons, water, wind, fire etc., pervade the substances to be destroyed and disintegrate them. Even hammers and such other instruments rouse wind through violent contact with the objects and thery destroy their objects. So, the essential nature of the self being subtler than anything else, It is imperishable.
(The Lord) now says that the bodies are perishable:
2.17 Tu, but this word is used for distinguishing (reality) from unreality; tat viddhi, know That; to be avinasi, indestructible, by nature not subject to destruction; what? (that) yena, by which, by which Brahman called Reality; sarvam, all; idam, this, the Universe together with space; is tatam, pervaded, as pot etc. are pervaded by space. Na kascit, none; arhati, can; kartum, bring about; vinasam, the destruction, disappearance, nonexistence; asya, of this avyayasya, of the Immutable, that which does not undergo growth and depletion. By Its very nature this Brahman called Reality does not suffer mutation, because, unlike bodies etc., It has no limbs; nor (does It suffer mutation) by (loss of something) belonging to It, because It has nothing that is Its own. Brahman surely does not suffer loss like Devadatta suffering from loss of wealth. Therefore no one can bring about the destruction of this immutable Brahman. No one, not even God Himself, can destroy his own Self, because the Self is Brahman. Besides, action with regard to one’s Self is self-contradictory. Which, again, is that ‘unreal’ that is said to change its own nature? This is being answered:
2.17 Know That to be indestructible by which all this is pervaded. None can cause the destruction of This Immutable.
2.17 But know That to be indestructible by which all this is pervaded. None can bring about the destruction of this Immutable.
2.17 Know that to be indestructible, by Which all this is pervaded. None can cause the destruction of That, the Imperishable.
English Commentary By Swami Sivananda2.17 अविनाशि indestructible? तु indeed? तत् That? विद्धि know (thou)? येन by which? सर्वम् all? इदम् this? ततम् is pervaded? विनाशम् destruction? अव्ययस्य अस्य of this Imperishable? न not? कश्चित् anyone? कर्तुम् to do? अर्हति is able.Commentary – Brahman or Atman pervades all the objects like ether. Even if the pot is broken? the ether that is within and without the pot cannot be destroyed. Even so? if the bodies and all other objects perish? Brahman or the Self that pervades them cannot perish. It is the living Truth? Sat.Brahman has no parts. There cannot be either increase or diminution in Brahman. People are ruined by loss of wealth. But Brahman does not suffer any loss in that way. It is inexhaustible. Therefore? none can bring about the disappearance or destruction of the Self. It always exists. It is always allfull and selfcontained. It is Existence Absolute. It is immutable.