सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे | समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा ||१८-५०||
siddhiṃ prāpto yathā brahma tathāpnoti nibodha me . samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā ||18-50||
18.50. Having attained the success, how he attains the Brahman, an attainment which is confirmed to be the final beatitude of true knowledge-that you must learn from Me briefly.
Shri Purohit Swami
18.50 I will now state briefly how he, who has reached perfection, finds the Eternal Spirit, the state of Supreme Wisdom.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
18.50 See Comment under 18.60
18.50 One who has attained ‘perfection’, viz., one who has attained perfection in meditation generated by the Karma Yoga performed day after day till death - how, in what way, he attains the brahman, learn this from Me in brief. It is the same Brahman who is described as the supreme consummation of knowledge. The meaning is that the self is the supreme consummation, the supreme end, of knowledge which is of the nature of meditation.
18.50 Nibodha, understand for certain; me, from Me, from My utterance-. Is it elaborately? The Lord says, no, samasena, in brief; eva, indeed, O son of Kunti, how siddhim praptah, one who has achieved success, one who, by worshipping God through one’s duties, has achieved success in the form of fitness of the body and organs for steadfastness in Knowledge, which comes from His grace; (-the reiteration of the phrase siddhim praptah is meant for introducing what follows; what is that succeeding subject for which this reiteration stands is being answered:) yatha tatha, that process by which, that process in the form of steadfastness in Knowledge, by which that process of aciring steadfastness in Knowledge by which; apnoti, attains; brahma, Brahman, th supreme Self-. In order to point out-as ‘It is this’-the realization of Brahman which was promised in, ’that process by which one৷৷.attains Brahman,’ the Lord says; ya, which; is the para, supreme; nistha, consummation, i.e. the supreme culmination; jnanasya, of Knowledge. Of what? Of the knowledge of Brahman. Of what kind is it? It is of the same kind as the realization of the Self. Of what kind is that? As is the Self. Of what nature is It? As has been described by the Lord and the Upanisadic texts, and established through reason. Objection: Is it not that knowledge takes the form of its object? But it is not admitted anywhere that the Self is an object, or even that It has form. Pseudo-Vedantin: Is it not heard of in such texts as, ‘radiant like the sun’ (Sv. 3.8), ‘Of the nature of effulgence’ (Ch. 3.14.2) and ‘Self-effulgent’ (Br. 4.3.9), that the Self has form? Objection: No, because those sentences are meant for refuting the idea that the Self is of the nature of darkness. When the Self is denied of possessing forms of substance, ality, etc., the contingency arises of the Self’s being of the nature of darkness. The sentences, ‘radiant like the sun,’ etc. are meant for ruting this. And this follows from the specific denial of from by saying, ‘Formless’ (Ka. 1.3.15), and from such texts as, ‘His form does not exist within the range of vision; nobody sees Him with the eye’ (Ka. 2.3.9: Sv. 4.20), ‘soundless, touchless’ (ka. 1.3.15), etc. which show that the Self is not an object of perception. Therefore it remains unproved that there can be any knowledge which takes the form of the Self. How, then, can there be the knowledge of the Self? For, all knowledge that there can be with regard to objects assumes their respective forms. And it has been said that the Self has no form. Moreover, if both knowledge and the Self be formless, then how can there be the consummation [Firmness in Self-realization.] of the (repeated) contemplation on that (knowledge of the Self)? Vedantin: No. Since it can be established that the Self is supremely taintless, pure and subtle, and it can also be established that the intellect can have taintlessness etc. like the Self, therefore it stands to reason that the intellect can take a form resembling the consciousness of the Self. The mind becomes impressed with the semblance of the intellect; the organs become impressed with the semblance of the mind; and the body becomes impressed with the semblance of hte organs. Hence it is that the idea of the body itself being the Self is held by ordinary people. The Lokayatikas (materialists), who hold that the body is identical with consciousness, say that a person is a body endowed with consciousness; so also there are others who say that the organs are identical with consciousness; there are others who say that the mind is identical with consciousness, and still others who say that the intellect is identical with consciousness. Some accept as the Self the Unmanifest [The inmost Ruler (antaryamin), possessing a semblance of Consciousness.], called the Undifferentiated, which is more internal than that (intellect) and is within the domain of (primordial) ignorance. Indeed, in every case, beginning from the intellect to the body, the cause of mis-conceived Selfhood is the semblance of the Consciousness that is the Self. Hence, knowledge about the Self is not a subject for injunction. What then? Only the eradication of the superimposition of name, form, etc., which are not the Self, is what has to be undertaken, but not the knowledge of the Self that is Consciousness. For it is the Self which is experienced as possessed of the forms of all the various objects that are superimposed (on It) through ignorance. It is evidently because of this that the Buddhists who uphold the view of (momentary) consciousness have concluded that there is no substance at all apart from (momentary) consciousness, and that it is not in need of any other valid proof since they hold that it is self-cognized. Therefore, what is to be undertaken is only the elimination of the superimposition on Brahman through ignorance, but no effort is needed for knowing Brahman (Consciousness), for It is ite self-evident! It is because the intellect is distracted by particular appearances of name and form imagined through ignorance that Brahman, even though self-evident, easily realizable, nearer than all else and identical with oneself, appears to be concealed, difficult to realize, very far and different, But to those whose intellect has become free from external appearances and who have obtained the grace of a teacher and serenity of mind, there is nothing more blissful, manifest, well known, easily realized and nearer to oneself than this Self. And thus it has been declared, ‘directly realizable, righteous,’ etc. (9.2). However, some wiseacres assert that the intellect cannot comprehend the entity called the Self since It is formless; hence, complete steadfastness in Knowledge is impossible. This is truly so for those who have not associated with a traditional line of teachers; who have not heard the Upanisads; whose intellects are too much engrossed with external objects; and who have not applied themselves diligently to the perfect means of knowledge. For those, on the other hand, who are the opposite of these, it is absolutely impossible to have the idea of reality with regard to empirical objects, which are within the realm of duality involving the knower and the known, because in their case there is no perception of any other thing apart from the Consciousness that is the Self. We have already said how this is certainly so and not otherwise. It has been stated by the Lord also, ‘That during which creatures keep awake, it is night to the seeing sage’ (2.69). Therefore, the cessation of the perception of differences in the form of external things is alone the cause of resting in the reality of the Self. For, that which is called the Self is never an object which is not well known, attainable, rejectable or acceptable to anyone at any time. Were that Self to be indeed not self-evident, all activities would become meaningless. [According to Ast. the latter portion of this sentence is: svarthah sarvah pravrttayah vyarthah prasajyeran, all activities meant for one’s own benefit would become meaningless.-Tr.]. For it cannot be imagined that they could be undertaken for unconscious objects like the body etc. Besides, it cannot be that pleasure is for pleasure’s sake, or that sorrow is for sorrow’s sake. Moreover, all empirical dealings are meant for culminating in the realization of the Self. [According to B.S. 3.4.26, ‘On the strength of the Upanisadic sanction of sacrifices etc. all religious activities as well are necessary৷৷.’, sacrifices etc. are meant for leading to the realization of the Self, without which they would become meaningless.] Therefore, just as for knowing one’s own body there is no need of any other (external) means of knowledge so also there is no need of any other means of knowledge, for the realization of the Self which is innermost (in relation to the body etc.). Hence it is established that steadfastness in the knowledge of the Self is a fact very well known to the discriminating people. Even to those who hold that knowledge is formless and not cognized by direct perception, cognition of an object is dependent on knowledge. Hence it has to be admitted that knowledge is as immediate as pleasure etc. And this follows also from the impossibility of a desire to know (knowledge). Had knowledge been not self-evident, it could have been sought for like any object of knowledge. And in that case, as [This is Ast.’s reading; others read tatha.-Tr.] a knower seeks to perceive through knowledge such objects of knowledge as pot etc., similarly the knower would have sought to perceive knowledge through another knowledge! But this is not the case. Therefore knowledge is ite self-revealing, and for the very same reason the knower also is self-revealed. Hence, effort is not needed for knowledge, but only for the removal of the notion of what is not-Self. [In place of anatma-buddhi-nivrttau, Ast. has ‘anatmani atma-buddhi-nivrttau, for the termination of thinking what is not the Self as the Self’.-Tr.] Conseently, steadfastness in Knowledge is easy of accomplishment. It is being stated how this supreme consummation of Knowledge is to be attained:
18.50 Learn from me in brief, O Arjuna, how, one who has attained perfection, attains the brahman (or the self), who is the supreme consummation of knowledge.
18.50 Understand for certain from Me, in brief indeed, O son of Kunti, that process by which one who has achieved success attains Brahman, which is the supreme consummation of Knowledge.
18.50 Learn from Me in brief, O Arjuna, how he who has attained perfection reaches Brahman (the Eternal), that supreme state of knowledge.
18.50 सिद्धिम् perfection? प्राप्तः attained? यथा as? ब्रह्म Brahman (the Eternal)? तथा so? आप्नोति obtains? निबोध learn? मे of Me? समासेन in brief? एव even? कौन्तेय O son of Kunti? निष्ठा state? ज्ञानस्य of knowledge? या or? परा highest.Commentary When a man has the good fortune to hear the words of wisdom from a teacher? dualism and egoism vanish and his mind rests in union with the Supreme Being. The need for action no longer exists for such a man. Nothing further remains for him to do. He has become a Kritakritya (a man of total fulfilment? or one who has done all that there is to be done).The aspirant obtains the grace of the Lord by worshipping Hims with his proper duty. The Lord gives him dispassion? discrimination? devotion to knowledge. The Lord removes his veil of ignorance. To these ever harmonious? worshipping in love? I give the Yoga of discrimination by which they come unto Me. Out of My mere compassion for them? I? dwelling within their Self? destroy the darkness born of ignorance by the luminous lamp of knowledge. (X.10and11)The perfection is JnanaNishtha or devotion to knowledge by which he attains Selfrealisation or becomes identical with the Supreme Being when the veil of ignorance is rent asunder. The way to the attainment of this devotion to knowledge will be described only in a succint manner. The process or method of Selfrealisation will be described only in brief in the following verses.The actual technie has to be learnt direct from a Guna.