असक्तबुद्धिः सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृहः | नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिं परमां संन्यासेनाधिगच्छति ||१८-४९||
asaktabuddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigataspṛhaḥ . naiṣkarmyasiddhiṃ paramāṃ saṃnyāsenādhigacchati ||18-49||
18.49. He, whose mind entertains no attachment to anything, who is self-conered and is free from craving-he attains by means of renunciation the supreme success of actionlessness.
Shri Purohit Swami
18.49 He whose mind is entirely detached, who has conquered himself, whose desires have vanished, by his renunciation reaches that stage of perfect freedom where action completes itself and leaves no seed.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
18.49 See Comment under 18.60
18.49 He whose understanding is, on all sides, without attachments, concerning fruits etc., whose ‘self is conered,’ i.e., who has conered his mind; who, by contemplating on the agency of the Supreme Person, is free from the habit of attributing agency to the self; and who is thus eipped with Sannyasa which has been positively determined to be the same as Tyaga - such a man, performing actions, attains supreme perfection which is free from all activities. The meaning is that he attains devotion to Dhyana which is the consummation of even Jnana Yoga; he attains Dhyana Yoga (Yoga of meditation) consisting in the complete cessation of sensory activity, which is going to be described hereafter.
18.49 Asakta-buddhih, he whose intellect, the internal organ, remains unattached; sarvatra, to everything, with regard to son, wife and others who are the cuases of attachment; jitatma, who has conered his internal organs; and vigata-sprhah, who is desireless, whose thirst for his body, life and objects of enjoyment have been eradicated;-he who is such a knower of the Self, adhigaccahti, attains; sannyasena, through monasticism, through perfect knowledge or through renunciation of all actions preceded by this knowledge; the paramam, supreme, most excellent; naiskarmya-siddhim, perfection consisting in the state of one free from duties. One is said to be free from duties from whom duties have daparted as a result of realizing that the actionless Brahman is his Self; his state is naiskarmyam. That siddhi (perfection) which is this naiskarmya is naiskarmya-siddhi. Or, this phrase means ‘achievement of naiskarmya’, i.e., achievement of the state of remaining established in one’s own real nature as the actionless Self-which is different from the success arising from Karma (-yoga), and is of the form of being established in the state of immediate Liberation. Accordingly has it been said, ‘৷৷.having given up all actions mentally,৷৷.without doing or causing (others) to do anything at all’ (5.13). The stages through which one who has attained success-which has the aforesaid characteristics and which arises from the performance of one’s own duties mentioned earlier as worship of God-, and in whom has arisen discriminative knowledge, achieves perfection-in the form of exclusive adherence to Knowledge of the Self and consisting in the state of one free from duties-have to be stated. With this is view the Lord says:
18.49 He whose understanding is on all sides unattached, whose self is conered, who is free from desires - he attains by renunciation the supreme perfection transcending all activity.
18.49 He whose intellect remains unattached to everything, who has conered his internal organs and is desireless, attains through monasticism the supreme perfection consisting in the state of one free from duties.
18.49 He whose intellect is unattached everywhere, who has subdued his self, from whom desire has fled, he by renunciation, attains the supreme state of freedom from action.
18.49 असक्तबुद्धिः whose intellect is unattached? सर्वत्र eveywhere? जितात्मा who has subdued his self? विगतस्पृहः whose desire has fled? नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिम् the perfection consisting in freedom from action? परमाम् the supreme? संन्यासेन by renunciaion? अधिगच्छति (he) attains.Commentary The mind of one who is free from attachment to wife? son? body and property? who has controlled his senses and the mind? who has no desire for the body? for life and for sensual pleasure? turns inwards towards God or the immortal Self. It is not attracted by the sensual objects of the world. It is filled with dispassion and discrimination.He gradually gets himself established in his own Self which is of the nature of ExistenceKnowledgeBliss. Such a person who has knowledge of the Self attains to the highest perfection? to pefect freedom from action by renunciation.Ignorance is destroyed by the attainment of the knowledge of the Self. There is cessation of activity. One may perform actions for the solidarity of the world and yet he will not be bound by actions as he has attained absolute freedom from action through the knowledge of the Self. The fire of knowledge has burnt the fruitbearing effects of Karmas or actions. He has no idea of agency as he is absolutely free from egoism? as he has identified himself with the Supreme Being.Naishkarmya siddhi may also mean the attainment of the state of Naishkarmya. In this exalted? magnanimous? ineffable state of divine splendour and glory? one remains as the actionless Self. This is the state of immediate liberation of the Vedantins (Kaivalya Moksha or Sadyomukti). This marvellous state is attained by renunciation or right knowledge or by the renunciation of all actions brought about by the attainment of the knowledge of the Self. Mentally renouncing all actions and selfcontrolled? the embodied one rests happily in the ninegated? city? neither acting nor causing others to act. (Cf.V.13)Now the Lord teaches in the next verse how a man who? having attained perfection as described above in verse 46? by doing his duty in the service of the Lord can attain perfect freedom from action. He gets discrimination? practises constant meditation and rests in the knowledge of the immutable Self.,(Cf.III.4and19)