शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् |
दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम् ||१८-४३||


śauryaṃ tejo dhṛtirdākṣyaṃ yuddhe cāpyapalāyanam .
dānamīśvarabhāvaśca kṣātraṃ karma svabhāvajam ||18-43||



18.43. Heroic deed, fiery energy, firmness, dexterity, and also non-feeling form battle, giving gifts, overlordship, are the duties of the Ksatriyas, born of their nature.

Shri Purohit Swami

18.43 Valour, glory, firmness, skill, generosity, steadiness in battle and ability to rule - these constitute the duty of a soldier. They flow from his own nature.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

18.43 See Comment under 18.60

Sri Ramanuja

18.43 ‘Valour’ is the ability of plunging into a battle without fear. ‘Invincibility’ is the capacity to remain undefeated by others. ‘Steadiness’ is the capacity to complete a work that has been started despite obstacles. ‘Adroitness’ is the ability in executing all works. ‘Apalayana’ is not fleeing in a battle though one is convinced of one’s death. ‘Generosity’ is parting with one’s own possessions to others even to its entirety. ‘Lordliness’ is the capacity to govern all others. This is the duty of a Ksatriya born of his inherent nature.

Sri Shankaracharya

18.43 Svabhavajam, the natural; ksatra-karma, [A variant reading is ksatram karma.-Tr.] enjoined duties of the Ksatriyas, of the Ksatriya caste; are sauryam, heroism; tejah, boldness; dhrtih, fortitude, as is seen in the case of one who is not depressed under all circumstances, being sustained by doggedness; daksyam, capability engagement without confusion in duties which suddenly present them-selves; api ca, and also; apalayanam, not retreating; yuddhe, from battle, not fleeing from enemies; danam, generosity, being free in the distribution of gifts; isvarabhavah, lordliness, manifesting (exercising) rulership over those who have to be ruled.

Swami Adidevananda

18.43 Valour, invincibility, steadiness, adroitness and non-fleeing in battle, generosity and lordliness are the duties of a Ksatriya born of his inherent nature.

Swami Gambirananda

18.43 The natural duties of the Ksatriyas are heroism, boldness, fortitude, capability, and also not retreating from battle, generosity and lordliness.

Swami Sivananda

18.43 Prowess, splendour, firmness, dexterity and also not fleeing from battle, generosity and lordliness are the duties of the Kshatriyas, born of (their own) nature.


Swami Sivananda

18.43 शौर्यम् prowess? तेजः splendour? धृतः firmness? दाक्ष्यम् dexterity? युद्धे in battle? च and? अपि also? अपलायनम् not fleeing? दानम् generosity? ईश्वरभावः lordliness? च and? क्षात्रम् of Kshatriyas? कर्म action? स्वभावजम् born of nature.Commentary It is the first duty of Kshatriya (man of the warrior class or of royal blood) to be brave and chivalrous. Bravery is that sublime virtue through which one is naturally strong? vigorous and courageous. In the face of the most terrible calamity the mind will not be in the least perturbed. The Kshatriya is firm under any unfavourable or trying conditions or circumstances. He does not get the least depression of spirit even when he is in adverse circumstances. It is the skill by which the reason finds out its path amidst all untoward circumstances and eventually attains its goal. This is firmness? fortitude or courage.Dakshya Promptness He is able to decide rightly on the spot in matters that deman prompt attention doing without confusion? of duties which present themselves all of a sudden and demand prompt action.As the sunflower always turns its face towards the sun so does he always face his enemies. He will ever avoid turning his back to them on the field of battle. He is absolutely fearless. Just as a tree gives away its flowers and fruits freely to whoever desires them? as the jasmine sends out its sweet fragrace in every direction? so will a Kshatriya generously give to another whatever may be asked of him. His charity is boundless.Lordliness A Kshatriya king enjoys sovereignty over his subjects owing to the sure protection he grants them? exercises ruling power over his subjects who are to be ruled? and raises the rod of chastisement to punish the unrighteous or the wicked.