यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च |
न विमुञ्चति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी ||१८-३५||


yayā svapnaṃ bhayaṃ śokaṃ viṣādaṃ madameva ca .
na vimuñcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī ||18-35||



18.35. The content, whery a foolish man does not give up his sleep, fear, grief, despondency and also arrogancethat content is deemed to be of the Tamas (Strand).

Shri Purohit Swami

18.35 And that which clings perversely to false idealism, fear, grief, despair and vanity is the product of Ignorance.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

18.33-35 Dhrtya etc. upto Tamasi mata. One restrains the activities of his mind, living breath and senses, with Yoga : i.e., thinking ‘What is the use for me by enjoying etc. ? Let me be delighted in the Self by all means.’ Conseently : not with much indulgence. That content whery one fixes pleasure as his goal only in sleep, fight etc.-that content is of the Tamas (Strand).

Sri Ramanuja

18.35 That Dhrti by which a foolish person does not give up, i.e. persists in, sleep, and sensuous indulgence through the activities of the mind, vital force etc., - that Dhrti is of the nature of Tamas. The terms fear, grief and depression indicate the objects generating fear, grief etc. That Dhrti by which one maintains the activities of the mind, the vital force etc., as a means for these, is of the nature of Tamas.

Sri Shankaracharya

18.35 That firmness is mata, considered to be; tamasi, born of tamas; yaya, due to which; durmedha, a person with a corrupt intellect; na vimuncati, does not give up-indeed, holds fast to; svapnam, sleep; bhayam, fear; sokam, sorrow; visadam, despondency; eva ca, as also; madam, sensuality, enjoyment of objects-mentally holding these as things that must always be resorted to, considering them to be greatly important to himself, like a drunkard thinking of wine. The threefold division of action as also of agents according to the differences of the gunas has been stated. After that, now is being stated the threefold division of results and happiness:

Swami Adidevananda

18.35 That Dhrti by which a foolish person does not give up sleep, fear, grief, depression and passion, O Arjuna, is of the nature of Tamas.

Swami Gambirananda

18.35 That firmness is considered [Some editions read partha in place of mata (considered).-Tr.] to be born of tamas due to which a person with a corrupt intellect does not give up sleep, fear, sorrow, despondency as also sensuality.

Swami Sivananda

18.35 That, by which a stupid man does not abandon sleep, fear, grief, despair and also conceit that firmness, O Arjuna, is Tamasic.


Swami Sivananda

18.35 यया by which? स्वप्नम् sleep? भयम् fear? शोकम् grief? विषादम् despair? मदम् conceit? एव indeed? च and? न not? विमुञ्चति abandons? दुर्मेधाः a stupid man? धृतिः firmness? सा that? पार्थ O Arjuna? तामसी Tamasic (dark).Commentary The man who is an embodiment of darkness is made up of every possible kind of evil. He is very indolent and sinful. He is inordinately addicted to sleep. He considers these to be only proper. He experiences sorrow on account of his evil actions. As he is very much attached to the body he entertains great fear. He is ever discontented at heart. He is lustful and selfconceited. He does not know how to behave. He is rude and insolent. He indulges much in sensual pleasures.