अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता |
सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी ||१८-३२||


adharmaṃ dharmamiti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā .
sarvārthānviparītāṃśca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī ||18-32||



18.32. The intellect which, containing darkness (ignorance), conceives the unrighteous one as righteous and all things topsy-turvy-that intellect is deemed to be of the Tamas (Strand).

Shri Purohit Swami

18.32 And that which, shrouded in Ignorance, thinks wrong right, and sees everything perversely, O Arjuna, that intellect is ruled by Darkness.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

18.30-32 Pravrttim etc. upto Tamasi mata. Incorrectly ; not properly.

Sri Ramanuja

18.32 That Buddhi is of the nature of Tamas which is ’enveloped in Tamas’ and ‘reverses every value.’ The meaning is that it regards Adharma as Dharma and Dharma as Adharma, existent as non-existent, and non-existent as existent, and higher truth as the lower and the lower truth as the higher, and thus reverses every value.

Sri Shankaracharya

18.32 O Partha, sa, that; buddhih, intellect; tamasi, is born of tamas; ya, which; tamasavrta, being covered by darkness; manyate, considers, understands; adharmam, vice, what is prohibited; iti, as; dharmam, virtue, what is prescribed; and ca, verily; perceives sarvarthan, all things, all objects of knowledge without exception; viparitan, contrary to what they are.

Swami Adidevananda

18.32 That Buddhi, O Arjuna, which, enveloped in darkness, regards Adharma as Dharma and which reverses every value, is Tamasika.

Swami Gambirananda

18.32 O Parhta, that intellect is born of tamas which, being covered by darkness, considers vice as virtue, and verily perceives all things contrary ot what they are.

Swami Sivananda

18.32 That, which, enveloped in darkness, sees Adharma as Dharma and all things perverted that intellect, O Arjuna, is Tamasic (dark).


Swami Sivananda

18.32 अधर्मम् Adharma? धर्मम् Dharma? इति thus? या which? मन्यते thinks? तमसा by darkness? आवृता enveloped? सर्वार्थान् all things? विपरीतान् perverted? च and? बुद्धिः intellect? सा that? पार्थ O Partha? तामसी Tamasic (dark).Commentary That intellect which regards righteous acts as evil? and considers right things to be false? which treats everything in a contrary sense and looks upon virtues as if they were vices and takes everything that the scriptures declare to be good as being entirely wrong? is Tamasic. It views all things in a perverted light.Thus? O Arjuna? I have explained to thee the three aspects of the intellect. Now listen to the explanation of the characteristics of the three aspects of firmness.