प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च कार्याकार्ये भयाभये | बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ||१८-३०||
pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye . bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī ||18-30||
18.30. The intellect which knows the activity and the cessation from the activity, the proper and improper actions, the fear and non-fear, and the bondage and emancipation-that intellect is considered to be of the Sattva (Strand).
Shri Purohit Swami
18.30 That intellect which understands the creation and dissolution of life, what actions should be done and what not, which discriminates between fear and fearlessness, bondage and deliverance, that is Pure.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
18.30 See Comment under 18.32
18.30 ‘Activity’ is that Dharma which is the means for wordly prosperity. ‘Renunciation’ is that Dharma which is the means for release. The Buddhi which knows both these as they are, is Sattviki-buddhi. Further, such a Buddhi is capable of distinguishing between what ought to be done and what ought not to be done by persons of different stations in life, having as their duty activity or renunciation at particular places or times. Such a Buddhi helps them to know ‘This ought to be done and this ought not to be done.’ Such a Buddhi discerns transgression of the Sastras as the cause of fear and observance of the Sastras as the cause of fearlessness. It enables one to distinguish between bondage and release, the true nature of Samsara and deliverance from it. The Buddhi that functions in these ways is Sattvika.
18.30 O Partha, sa, that; buddhih, intellect; is sattviki, born of sattva; ya, which; vetti, understands; pravrttim, action, the path of rites and duties, which is the cause of bondage; and nivrttim, withdrawal, the path of renunciation, which is the cause of Liberation-since action and withdrawal are mentioned in the same sentence along with bondage and freedom, therefore they mean ’the path of rites and duties and of renunciation’-; karya-akarye, duty and what is not duty, i.e. what is enjoined or prohibited, [Ast. adds laukike vaidike va (ordinary or Vedic injunctions and prohibitions) after vihita-pratisiddhe; and it adds sastrabuddheh before kartavya-akartavye-what ougth to be done or ought not to be done by one who relies on the scriptures.-Tr.] what ought to be done or ought not to be done, action and inaction. With regard to what? With regard to action leading to seen or unseen, results, undertaken according to place, time, etc. Bhaya-adhaye, the sources of fear and fearlessness, i.e. the cuases of fear and fearlessness, with regard to seen or unseen objects; bandham, bondage, along with its cause; and moksam, freedom, along with its cause. In this context, knowing is a function of the intellect; but the intellect is the possesser of the function. Fortitude also is only a particular function of the intellect.
18.30 That Buddhi, O Arjuna, which knows activity and renunciation, what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, fear and fearlessness, bondage and release - that (Buddhi) is Sattvika.
18.30 O Partha, that intellect is born of sattva which understands action and withdrawal, duty and what is not duty, the sources of fear and fearlessness, and bondage and freedom.
18.30 The intellect which knows the path of work and renunciation, what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation that intellect is Sattvic (pure), O Arjuna.
18.30 प्रवृत्तिम् action? the path of work? च and? निवृत्तिम् the path of renunciation? च and? कार्याकार्ये what ought to be done and what ought not to be done? भयाभये fear and fearlessness? बन्धम् bondage? मोक्षम् liberation? च and? या which? वेत्ति knows? बुद्धिः intellect? सा that? पार्थ O Arjuna? सात्त्विकी Sattvic.Commentary The threefold nature of knowledge has been described already (verse 22 above). Now the threefold nature of the intellect is described. Knowledge is different from the intellect.Pravritti Action The cause of bondage the path of action. Nivritti Inaction The cause of liberation the path of renunciation the path of Sannyasa.Karyakarye The pure intellect knows what ought to be done and what ought not to be done at,particular places and times it knows the actions that produce visible or invisible results? that are enjoined or prohibited by the scriptures. It guides a man who relies on the scriptural ordinances for his daily conduct of life.Bhayabhaye Fear and fearlessness The cause of fear and fearlessness either visible or invisible.Bandham moksham Bondage and liberation together with their causes.Knowledge is a Vritti (function or state) of the intellect whereas intellect is what functions or undergoes the change of state. Even firmness is only a particular Vritti (modification or state) of the intellect. (Cf.XVIII.20)