यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म साहंकारेण वा पुनः | क्रियते बहुलायासं तद्राजसमुदाहृतम् ||१८-२४||
yattu kāmepsunā karma sāhaṃkāreṇa vā punaḥ . kriyate bahulāyāsaṃ tadrājasamudāhṛtam ||18-24||
18.24. The object which is abundant in afflictions; and which is further reired by one who craves to attain the desired thing with the feeling of ‘I’-that is considered to be of the Rajas (Strand).
Shri Purohit Swami
18.24 But even though an action involve the most strenuous endeavour, yet if the doer is seeking to gratify his desires, and is filled with personal vanity, it may be assumed to originate in Passion.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
18.24 See Comment under 18.25
18.24 But whatever act is performed by one who seeks to gratify his desires, viz., by one who desires the results of his action and with the feeling of egoism, viz., has the misconceived notion that oneself is the agent; and with a great deal of effort - such an act is of the nature of Rajas. Here va (or) is used in the sense of ca (and). Whatever action is performed by one who possesses the misconceived notion, ‘This action demanding enormous effort is performed entirely by me’ - it is said to be Rajasika.
18.24 But tat, that; karma, action; udahrtam, is said to be; rajasam, born of rajas; yat, which; is kriyate, done; kamepsuna by one desirous of results; va, or; saahankarena, by one who is egotistic; and bahulaayasam, which is highly strenuous, accomplished by the agent with great effort. ‘Egotistic’ is not used in contrast to knowledge of Truth. What then? It is used in contrast to the absence of egotism in an ordinary person versed in the Vedic path. For in the case of the knower of the Self, who is not egotistic in the real sense, there is no estion of his being desirous of results or of being an agent of actions reiring great effort. Even of actions born of sattva, the agent is one who has not realized the Self and is possessed of egoism; what to speak of actions born of rajas and tamas! In common parlance, a person versed in the Vedic path, even though not possessing knowledge of the Self, is spoken of as being free from egotism thus-‘This Brahmana is free from egotism’. Therefore, ‘sahan-karena va’ is said in contrast to him only. Punah (again) is used to complete the meter.
18.24 But that act is said to be Rajasika which is performed with great effort by one who seeks to gratify his desires and under the prompting of egoism.
18.24 But that action is said to be born of rajas which is done by one desirous of results or by one who is egotistic, and which is highly strenuous.
18.24 But that action which is done by one longing for the fulfilment of desires or gain with egoism or with much effort that is declared to be Rajasic (passionate).
18.24 यत् which? तु but? कामेप्सुना by one longing for desires? कर्म action? साहङ्कारेण with egoism? वा or? पुनः again? क्रियते is performed? बहुलायासम् with much effort? तत् that? राजसम् Rajasic (passionate)? उदाहृतम् is declared.Commentary A passionate man performs various selfish actions. He boasts of his actions in public. Passion prompts him to do them. He can never work without expectation of a reward.Kamepsuna? phalepsuna The Rajasic or passionate man expects pleasures as fruits of action. A liberated sage alone is absolutely free from egoism. He will not dream even of a reward for the action? because all his desires are gratified when he realises Brahman. He is an Aptakama. (Aptakamasya ka spriha) How can there be longing or craving in a sage in whom all desires are gratified or burnt by the fire of SelfknowledgeEven the performer of a pure act? who has no knowledge of the Self is egoistic. If such be the case? the Rajasic and Tamasic workers are much more egoistic. In worldly parlance we speak of a learned Pundit This Pundit is a very modest? unassuming? and egoless Brahmana.Now listen? O Arjuna? to the characteristics of action that is of darkness.