श्रीभगवानुवाच | काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः | सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः ||१८-२||
śrībhagavānuvāca . kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ kavayo viduḥ . sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṃ prāhustyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇāḥ ||18-2||
18.2. The Bhagavat said The seers understand the act of renouncing the desire-motivated actions as renunciation; the experts declare the relinishment of the fruits of all actions to be relinishment.
Shri Purohit Swami
18.2 Lord Shri Krishna replied: The sages say that renunciation means forgoing an action which springs from desire; and relinquishing means the surrender of its fruit.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
18.2 Kamyanam etc. The desire-motivated actions : the Agnistoma (sacrifce) etc. All actions etc. : The relinishment is the relinishment of fruits, even while performing all actions tha are to be performed daily or occasionally. Whatever remains to be spoken in this chapter had been examined in detail even by the previous commentators like the revered Bhatta Bhaskara and others. Hence why should we take the trouble of repeating. For, our main concern is to fulfil the promise to show only the hidden purport of this [work]. Therefore now [the Bhagavat] relates different views in order to determine the best in this regard -
18.2 The Lord said Some scholars understand that Sannyasa is complete relinishment of desire-prompted acts. Some other wise men say that the meaning of the term Tyaga, according to the Sastras dealing with release, is relinishment of the fruits not only of all desiderative (Kamya), but also of obligatory and occasional, duties . Here, the problem is, whether the Tyaga taught in the Sastras concern desiderative acts themselves, or fruits of all acts. Sri Krsna has used the terms Sannyasa in one place and Tyaga elsewhere. From this it is understood that Sri Krsna uses the terms Tyaga and Sannyasa as synonyms.
Likewise, the decisive teaching is about Tyaga alone in the statement: ‘Hear My decision, O Arjuna, about Tyaga’ (18.4). That the terms are synonymously used to denote the same sense, is conclusively established from such passages as: ‘But the renunciation (Sannyasa) of obligatory work is not proper. Abandonment (Tyaga) of it through delusion is declared to be Tamasika’ (18.7); and ‘To those who have not renounced the fruits of actions, threefold are the conseences after death - undesirable, desriable and mixed. But to those who have renounced, none whatsoever’ (18.12).
18.2 Some kavayah, learned ones; viduh, know; sannyasam, sannyasa, the meaning of the word sannyasa, the non-performance of what comes as a duty; to be the nyasam, giving up; karmanam, of actions; kamyanam, done with a desire for reward, e.g. Horse-sacrifice etc. Sarva-karma-phala-tyagah, abandonment of the results of all actions, means the giving up of the results accruing to oneself from all actions- the daily obligatory and the occasional (nitya and naimittika) that are performed. Vicaksanah, the adepts, the learned ones; prahuh, call, speak of that; as tyagam, tyaga, as the meaning of the word tyaga. Even if ’the giving up of actions for desired results’ or ’the abandonment of results’ be the intended meaning, in either case the one meaning of the words sannyasa and tyaga amounts only to tyaga (giving up); they do not imply distinct categories as do the words ‘pot’ and ‘cloth’. Objection: Well, is it not that they say the daily obligatory (nitya) and the occasional (naimittika) rites and duties have no results at all? How is the giving up of their results spoken of-like the abandoning of a son of a barren woman?! Reply: This defect does not desire. It is the intention of the Lord that the nitya-karmas (daily obligatory duties) also have results; for the Lord will say, ‘The threefold results of actions-the undesirable, the desirable and the mixed-accrue after death to those who do not resort to tyaga’, and also, ‘but never to those who resort to sannyasa (monks)’ (12). Indeed, by showing that, it is only in the case of sannyasins (monks) alone that there is no connection with the results of actions, the Lord asserts in, ‘৷৷.accrue after death to those who do not resort to tyaga (renunciation)’ (abid.), that the result of daily obligatory (nitya) duties accrue to those who are not sannyasins (monks).
18.2 The Lord said The sages hold that Sannyasa is the giving up of all works which are motivated by desire. The wise declare Tyaga to be the abandonment of fruits of all works.
18.2 The Blessed Lord said The learned ones know sannyasa to be the giving up of actions done with a desire for reward. The adepts call the abandonment of the results of all works as tyaga.
18.2 The Blessed Lord said The sages understand Sannyasa to be the renunciation of action with desire; the wise declare the abandonment of the fruits of all actions as Tyaga.
English Commentary By Swami Sivananda18.2 काम्यानाम् (of) desireful? कर्मणाम् of actions? न्यासम् the renunciation? संन्यासम् Sannyasa? कवयः the sages? विदुः understand? सर्वकर्मफलत्यागम् the abandonment of the fruits of all works? प्राहुः declare? त्यागम् abandonment? विचक्षणाः the wise.Commentary Kamya Karmani Activities such as the Asvamedha (a special sacrifice)? etc.? which are performed for the attainment of specific selfish ends. The wise men declare that Tyaga means abandonment of the fruits of all the Nitya and Naimittika works (ordinary and extraordinary or occasional duties).The rootmeaning of the words Sannyasa and Tyaga is to give up. In popular usage Sannyasa and Tyaga are more or less synonymous. Both mean renunciation. The two words do not mean two altogether distinct ideas as stone and fruit? or pot and cloth. They convey the same general idea with a slight distinction.An objector asks It is said that the Nitya and Naimittika actions cannot produce any fruits. Why then is the relinishment of their fruits mentioned here It is like asking for the relinishment of the barren womans sonWe say The objection is not correct. In the opinion of the Lord? ordinary and occasional duties cause their own fruits (vide XVIII.12). Sannyasins alone who have renounced the desire for the fruits of actions will not get the fruits? but other persons will have to reap the fruits of the ordinary and occasional actions.If one renounces all actions after the attainment of Selfrealisation and enters into the fourth order of life (Sannyasa) it is called VidvatSannyasa. If one renounces all actions and enters into the order of Sannyasa for the sake of doing VedantaVichara (or reflection on the truths of the Vedantaphilosophy and on the true significance of the great sentences of the Upanishads which reveal the identity of the individual soul with the Supreme Being) and for thus attaining Selfrealisation? it is called VividishaSannyasa.