पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे | साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् ||१८-१३||
pañcaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me . sāṅkhye kṛtānte proktāni siddhaye sarvakarmaṇām ||18-13||
18.13. O mighty-armed one ! Learn from Me these following five causes that have been declared in the conclusion of deliberations [on proper knowledge], for the accomplishment of all actions.
Shri Purohit Swami
18.13 I will tell thee now, O Mighty Man, the five causes which, according to the final decision of philosophy, must concur before an action can be accomplished.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
18.13 See Comment under 18.17
18.13 ‘Sankhya’ means Buddhi (reasoning). ‘Sankhya-krtanta’ means that which is determined after due deliberations by the Buddhi in accordance with the Vedas on the nature of the things as they are. Learn them from Me. There are five causes for the accomplishment of all actions. But the understanding according to the Vedas (Vaidiki-buddhi) is that the Supreme Self alone is the agent working through body, senses, Pranas and the individual self, as asserted in the following Srutis: ‘He who, dwelling in the self, who rules the self from within your self, the Inner Ruler, immortal’ (Br. U. Madh., 3.7.22), and ‘He who has penetrated the interior, is the Ruler of all creatures and the Self of all’ (Tai. A., 3.11.3).
Sri Krsna nows sets forth the five causes:
18.13 O mighty-armed one, nibodha, learn; me, from Me; imani, these; panca, five; karanani, factors, accessories, which are going to be stated-for drawing the attention of his (Arjuna’s) mind and for showing the difference among these categories [Categories: locus (body) etc], the Lord praises those accessories in the succeeding verses as fit for being known-; siddhaye, for the accomplishment; sarva-karmanam, of all actions; proktani, which have been spoken of; sankhye, in Vedanta-sankhya is that scripture where the subject-matters [In the sentence, ‘Thou art That’, the word Thou means the individual Self, and That means Brahman. The comprehension of their unity, and also ‘hearing, reflection and meditation’ are referred to as the subject-matters.] to be known are fully (samyak) stated (khyayante)-; krtante, in which actions terminate. Krtante alifies that very word (Vedanta). Krtam mean action. That in which occurs the culmination (anta) of that krtam is krtantam, i.e. the termination of actions. In the texts, ‘৷৷.as much utility as a man has in a well’ (2.46), and ‘O son of Prtha, all actions in their totality culminate in Knowledge’ (4.33), the Lord shows the cessation of all actions when the knowledge of the Self dawns. Hence (it is said): ‘৷৷.which have been spoken of in that Vedanta where actions culminate and which is meant for the knowledge of the Self.’ Which are they? This is being answered:
18.13 Learn from Me, O Arjuna, these five causes for the accomplishment of all acts, as described in Sankhya-krtanta - the science of the exact understanding of things for the accomplishment of works.
18.13 O mighty-armed one, learned from Me these [Another reading is etani.-Tr.] five factors for the accomplishment of all actions, which have been spoken of in the Vedanta in which actions terminate.
18.13 Learn from Me, O mighty-armed Arjuna, these five causes as declared in the Sankhya system for the accomplishment of all actions.
18.13 पञ्च five? एतानि these? महाबाहो O mightyarmed? कारणानि causes? निबोध learn? मे from Me? सांख्ये in the Sankhya? कृतान्ते which is the end of all actions? प्रोक्तानि as declared? सिद्धये for the accomplishment? सर्वकर्मणाम् of all actions.Commentary The Self has no connection whatevr with activity. Nature does everything. The Self is the silent witness. He remains indifferent. The whole superstructure of human activity is the result of the five welldefined causes which are enumerated in the following verse.Etani These Which are going to be mentioned.Sankhya Vedanta Knowledge of the Self as taught in the Vedanta (the Upanishads) puts an end to all actions. This is the reason why the term Kritante (the end of actions) is used here. When the knowledge of the Self arises? all actions terminate. This is taught in chapter II? verse 46 To the Brahman who has known the Self al the Vedas are of so much use as is a reservoir of water in a place where there is a flood everywhere. Again? in verse 33 of chapter IV? it is said All actions in their entirety? O Arjuna? culminate in knowledge. Vedanta? therefore? which imparts knowledge of the Self? is the end of action. A liberated sage who has attained the knowledge of the Self in accordance with the instructions laid down in the Vedanta becomes a Kritakritya (one who has done everything and has nothing more to do).