अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम् | भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु संन्यासिनां क्वचित् ||१८-१२||
aniṣṭamiṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam . bhavatyatyāgināṃ pretya na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit ||18-12||
18.12. The three-fold fruit of action, viz., the undesired, the desired and the mixed, accrues [even] after death ot those who are not men of relinishment, but never to those who are men of renunciation.
Shri Purohit Swami
18.12 For those who cannot renounce all desire, the fruit of action hereafter is threefold - good, evil, and partly good and partly evil. But for him who has renounced, there is none.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
18.12 Anistam etc. To those who are not men of relinishment : to those who are full of [desire for] fruit. Even at the stage of mundane life, where all the five factors do exist for actions, those persons, blind with their ignorance, obstinately burden their own Self with the entire load of agency. Hence they fetter their own Self with their own thinking. But, in fact, there is no bondage for Him (the Self). This is now being taught as :
18.12 The ‘undesirable result’ is Naraka etc., ’the desirable’ is heaven etc., ’the mixed’ is sons, cows, food etc., which are combined with some undesirable results. Those who have not renounced, namely, those who are devoid of renunciation of agency, possessiveness and fruits - they meet with threefold conseences after death. The meaning of ‘after death’ (Pretya) may be understood as subseent to the performance of actions. But ’to those who have renounced, none whatsoever,’ viz., to those who have relinished the sense of agency etc., no such results antagonistic to release accrue.
Here the purport is this: Agnihotra, the great sacrifices etc. are obligatory throughout life and are reired for attaining the objects of desire; but in regard to release their application is different. Though externally they appear to be the same in their nature in both the conditions, they are different in their fruits by virtue of difference in application. Their application to release is seen in such texts as ‘The Brahmanas desire to know Him by the study of the Vedas, by sacrifices, by gifts, by austerities conjoined with fasting’ (Br. U., 4.4.22). Here the performance of actions without sense of agency is enforced. Such giving up agency etc., are relevant only with regard to acts that are actually performed. Thus Sannyasa or renouncing of this kind is established in the Sastras. The same is also called Tyaga or giving up.
Sri Krsna now explains the manner of realising that one is non-agent, by attributing all agency to God, who is the Supreme Person and the Inner Ruler, By cultivating this attitude, an aspirant can attain the renunciation of possessiveness with regard to actions and also their fruits. For it is the Supreme Person who performs all actions through the individual selves who belong to Him. The organs, bodies and Pranas of embodied beings are His. They exist for the sake of His own sport as the only purpose. Therefore, even the appeasement of hunger etc., and such other acts which affect the life of the individual souls and their works constitute only the means for accomplishing that purpose, namely, the sport of the Highest Purusa Himself. The purport of the argument is this: The analogy of seeds producing the tree and its fruits is not applicable to the actions of release-seekers. Their actions may look like those of fruit-seekers externally. But as mentally they do not entertain any such purpose, the conseence of their actions can be ite different. The purpose served by their actions is only affording sport for the Supreme Being.
18.12 These trividham, threefold-of three kinds; phalam, results; karmanah, of actions characterized as the righteous and the unritheous; anistam, the undesirable, consisting in (birth in) hell, (among) animals, etc.; istam, the desirable, consisting in (birth as) gods and others; and misram, the mixed, having a mixture of the desirable and the undesirable, consisting in (birht as) human beings;-these results that are of these kinds, bhavati, accrues; pretya, after death, after the fall of the body; atyaginam, to those who do not resort to renunciation, to the unilllumined, the men with rites and duties, who are not men of renunciation in the truest sense. The derivative sense of the word phala (pha-la) is this: On accunt of being accomplished through the operation of diverse external accessories, and a result of ignorance, comparable to the charm cast by jugglery, a source of great delusion and appearing as though close to the indwelling Self, it is phalgu (unsubstantial), and as a conseence it undergoes layam (disappearance). (The result that is of this kind accrues to those who do not resort to renunciation). Tu, but; na kvacit, never; sannyasinam, to those who resort tomonasticism for the sake of the highest Reality, to the class of monks called paramahamsas who remain steadfast in Knowledge alone. For, it cannot be that those who are devoted wholly to steadfastness in complete enlightenment do not dig out the seed of transmigration. This is the meaning. Therefore it is only for those who have realized the supreme Truth that it is possible to become a monk who renounces actions totally, because action, accessories and results are superimmpositions on the Self through ignorance. But the renunciation of all actions is not possible for an unenlightened person who perceives the locus (the body etc.), action, agentship and accessories as the Self. This the Lord shows in the following verses:
18.12 Undesirable, desirable and mixed - thus threefold is the fruit of work that accrues after death to those who have not renounced; but to those who have renounced, none whatsoever.
18.12 The threefold results of actions-the undesirable, the desirable, and the mixed-accrues after death to those who do not resort to renunciation, but never to those who resort to monasticism.
18.12 The threefold fruit of action (evil, good and mixed) accrues after death to the non-abandoners, but never to the abandoners.
18.12 अनिष्टम् unwished or disagreeable or evil? इष्टम् wished or agreeable or good? मिश्रम् mixed? च and? त्रिविधम् threefold? कर्मणः of action? फलम् fruit? भवति accrues? अत्यागिनाम् to nonrenouncers? प्रेत्य after death? न not? तु but? संन्यासिनाम् to renouncers? क्वचित् ever.Commentary One fruit (of action) is pleasant? another is unpleasant? while the third is a mixture of both. Those in whom good actions preponderate are rorn as gods. Men of evil lives are rorn into animal or vegetable kingdoms. If their actions are eally good and bad? they are rorn into the human kingodm. These distinctions of good? evil and mixed do not exist for the liberated sage who has gone beyond the bonds of Karma by destroying egoism? by annihilating the idea of agency and by abandoning the hope of rewards of actions.The action of a renouncer does not generate desire or attachment thereto. Therefore? after death he is not born again. The actions that are performed without any desire for the reward can bring no bondage to the man at any time.He who has surrendered the fruits of all his works to the Lord is free from the bondage of Karma. Some kind of action is inevitable and natural to all beings? but the man of renunciation abandons the fruits of actions.Phalam Fruit This is caused by the operation of various external factors. This is brought forth by Avidya (ignornace). It is like jugglery and very delusive. The term Phala denotes something that ickly passes away? something not real? not solid.Karma Action Virtue and vice.Anishtam Disagreeable or evil? such as hell? the animal kingdom? etc.Ishtam Wished or agreeable or good.Misram Good and evil mixed together the human birth.Only the unenlightened who have not renounced the fruits of actions reap these three sorts of fruits. The real Sannyasins who belong to the highest order of Sannyasa (Paramahamsa Parivrajakas) who are ever engaged in meditation on the pure? immortal Self? who are solely devoted to Selfknowledge? and who rest in their own essential nature as ExistenceKnowledgeBliss Absolute do not reap any fruits as the fire of Selfknowledge has burnt ignorance and its effects which are the seeds of Samsara.Only a liberated sage who has attained knowledge of the Self and who has no identification with the body can totally relinish all actions. He knows that the Self is beyond all actions and that action is attributed to the Self by ignorance. The ignorant man who identifies himself with the body cannot abandon actions. He thinks that he is the agent or the doer of all actions and expects to attain the fruits of his actions and so he is born again and again in this world to reap the fruits of these actions.