न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते |
त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः ||१८-१०||


na dveṣṭyakuśalaṃ karma kuśale nānuṣajjate .
tyāgī sattvasamāviṣṭo medhāvī chinnasaṃśayaḥ ||18-10||



18.10. The man of relinishment, who is well possessed of the Sattva, is wise and has his doubts destroyed-he hates not the unskilled action and clings not to the skilled action.

Shri Purohit Swami

18.10 The wise man who has attained purity, whose doubts are solved, who is filled with the spirit of self-abnegation, does not shrink from action because it brings pain, nor does he desire it because it brings pleasure.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

18.10 See Comment under 18.11

Sri Ramanuja

18.10 Thus, ‘filled with Sattva,’ endowed with right knowledge, i.e., with the knowledge of the reality as it is, and as a conseence of it ‘having all doubts shattered’ - he alone becomes a renouncer of attachment to work and the fruits of work. He ’neither hates works productive of harmful effects,’ nor ’loves others productive of worldly prosperity.’ Disagreeable acts are fraught with undesirable fruits; and agreeable acts bring about desirable results such as heaven, sons, cows, food etc. On account of his renouncing all results other than the Brahman and on account of his renouncing the sense of agency, he shows neither love nor hatred for above-mentioned types of works. Here ‘sinful acts having undesirable fruits’ are only such acts as are inadvertently performed. For it has been taught in the Srutis that nor turning away from bad conduct is antagonistic to the production of knowledge. ‘But one who has not ceased from bad conduct, who is not tranil, is not composed, is not of peaceful mind, cannot obtain Him by knowledge’ (Ka. U., 1.2.24). Thus, ’the abandonment’ according to the Sastras is renunciation of the sense of agency, attachment and fruits of actions, and not total relinishment of actions as such.

He explains this further:

Sri Shankaracharya

18.10 Na devesti, he does not hate; akusalam, unbefitting; karma, action, rites and duties meant for desired results-with the idea, ‘What is the usefulness of this which is a cause of transmigration through fresh embodiment?’ Na anusajjate, he does not become attached to; kusale, befitting activity, daily obligatory duties, by thinking that this is the cause of Liberation by virtue of its being the cause of purification of the mind, rise of Knowledge and steadfastness in it. That is to say, he does not entertain any liking even for it, because he finds no purpose in it. Who, again, is he? Tyagi, the man of renunciation, who has become so by having given up attachment and rewards of action in the manner stated above. He is a tyagi who performs nityakarmas by relinishing attachment to those acts and (their) results. Again, it is being stated as to when that person does not hate an unbefitting act and does not become attached to a befitting activity: When he has become sattva-samavistah, imbued with sattva, i.e., when he is filled with, possessed of, sattva, which is the means to the knowledge that discriminates between the Self and the not-Self; and hence medhavi, wise-endowed with intelligence (medha), intuitive experience, characterized as knowledge of the Self; one possessed of that is medhavai (wise)-; and owing to the very fact of being wise, chinnasamsayah, freed from doubts-one whose doubts created by ignorance have been sundered, one who is freed from doubts by his firm conviction that nothing but abiding in the ture nature of the Self is the supreme means to the highest Good. The person competent (for rites and duties) who, having gradually become purified in mind through the practice of Karma-yoga in the way described above, has realized as his own Self the actionless Self, which is devoid of modifications like birth etc., he, ‘৷৷.having given up all actions mentally, remaining at without doing or causing (others) to do anything at all’ (cf. 5.13), attains steadfastness in Knowledge, which is characterized as ‘actionless-ness’. In this way, the purpose of the aforesaid Karma-yoga has been stated through the present verse. On the other hand, since, for the unenlightened person-who, while being alified (for rites and duties), holds on to the body owing to the erroneous conception that the body is the Self, and who has the firm conviction, ‘I am the agent,’ because of the persistence of his idea that the Self is the agent-it is not possible to renounce actions totally, therefore he has competence only for performing enjoined duties by giving up fruits of actions. But he is not to renounce them (actions). In order to point out this idea the Lord says:

Swami Adidevananda

18.10 One who has abandoned, who is imbued with Sattva, who is wise, whose doubts have been dispelled - such a person hates not disagreeable acts nor clings to agreeable ones.

Swami Gambirananda

18.10 The man of renunciation who has become imbued with sattva, who is wise and freed from doubts, does not hate unbefitting action, nor does he become attached to befitting activity.

Swami Sivananda

18.10 The man of renunciation, pervaded by purity, intelligent, and with his doubts cut asunder, does not hate a disagreeable work nor is he attached to an agreeable one.


Swami Sivananda

18.10 न not? द्वेष्टि hates? अकुशलम् disagreeable? कर्म action? कुशले to an agreeable one? न not? अनुषज्जते is attached? त्यागी the abandoner? सत्त्वसमाविष्टः pervaded by purity? मेधावी intelligent? छिन्नसंशयः with his doubts cut asunder.Commentary All actions are eally welcome to the man of renunciation. He is not affected by either pleasure or pain. He is not elated at performing pleasant actions nor does he find unpleasantness when he does disagreeable actions. He does not hate the latter? nor is he attached to the former. Neither has he aversion to painful actions nor attraction to pleasant ones. As he has no attachment to any action or its rewards? he will do any action for the welfare of all beings.Akusalam Karma Disagreeable work or work done with expectation of reward? which becomes the cause of bondage to Samsara? by producing a body. He does not hate an unpleasnt action? thinking? Of what use is itKusale To good ones which include obligatory daily duties. He has no attachment to them even with the notion that they lead to salvation by purifying the heart and conseently giving rise to the dawn of knowledge and devotion to it.When one abandons attachment to action and desire for its reward and performs actions vigorously? his heart is filled with Sattva or purity which produces discrimination between the Real and the unreal? the Eternal and the transient. Then he attains knowledge of the Self which dispels all the doubts caused by ignorance. He now realises that the only means of attaining the spureme bliss or eternal peace or immortality is knowledge of the Self. This rends asunder all his doubts. What is the nature of doubt Does Brahman exist or not Do the Upanishads deal with Saguna Brahman or Nirguna Brahman Is the individual soul identical with the Supreme Being or not Will I be able to realise the Self or not Will any of the Karmas (Prarabdha? Sanchita and Agami) affect me Does this Samsara whose nature is the feelings I do this and I enjoy this belong to the Self or to the mind and intellect What are the means for liberation – Yoga? devotion? Karma or knowledge of the Self What is Moksha Is it Selfrealisation or the attainment of the Salokya? Samipya? Sarupya and Sayujya states (dwelling in the kingdom of God? proximity to Him? assuming the same form as the Lord and merging in Him)When a man practises Karma Yoga he gets purity of heart and through purity of heart knows himself to be the immutable actionless Self Who is destitute of birth? or remains without acting or causing others to act (Cf.V.13). He attains devotion to the knowledge of the Self and freedom from all actions. The purpose of the Karma Yoga described above has been taught in this verse.Medhavi He who is endowed or united with wisdom. He is a Sthitaprajna. What is Medha? then It is the immediate knowledge of the identity of the individual soul and the Supreme Being by meditation on the right significance of the great sentence (I am Brahman or That thou art)? which,is free from the three kinds of doubts? viz.? Samsaya Bhavana (doubt)? Asambhavana (improbability) and Viparitabhavana (perversion)? and by the practice of the four means and service of the Guru (who is versed in the scriptures and established in Brahman) and hearing the truths from him.Such a Medhavi will not think that prohibited actions which bind an ignorant man will be unfavourable to him. He will never think that they will bind him if he has to perform them? because he is above good and evil? virtue and vice? right and wrong. He has no idea of agency (Kartritva Abhimana) he feels that he is a Kritakritya? one who has accomplished all actions.This does not mean that he will do wrong actions. As his will is one with the cosmic will? whatever action he performs will be in accordance with the scriptures. He will never deviate even a fraction of an inch from the rules of the scriptures. The Lord alone works through his mind and senses as he has no individual will.RagaDvesha (likes and dislikes) are the motives that induce a worldly man to actions. As they are absent in a sage or a Medhavi? he can renounce the fruits of all actions and actions as well.As the ocean remains calm amidst stormy waves? even so a Sattvic man remains calm amidst adverse or stormy conditions of life. He recognises that the happenings of life are inevitable. He acts in a variety of ways but is not disturbed as he has a balanced and disciplined mind.There must be no hatred for unpleasant or disagreeable action that brings physical suffering? danger or unlucky results or untoward conseences? when it is the work that should be done. You will have to accept such work also with a willing heart and work with hear and soul. You must have a profound and comprehensive understanding of its need and meaning also. Arjuna failed to understand in the beginning the deep significance and need of the work given by the Lord. He brought in his own foolish philosophy. He failed to do his bounden duty because? due to ignorance? he thought it was an unpleasant or disagreeable action to kill people but in the end when his eyes were opened by the valuable teachings of the Lord? he understood the need and the meaning of the work although it appeared to him as disagreeable and unpleasant in the beginning? and said My illusion is destroyed. I have gained knowledge through Thy grace? O Krishna. I am firm? my doubts are gone. I will act according to Thy instructions.