अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते | असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ||१७-२२||
adeśakāle yaddānamapātrebhyaśca dīyate . asatkṛtamavajñātaṃ tattāmasamudāhṛtam ||17-22||
17.22. The gift which is given, at a wrong place, at a wrong time and to unworthy persons; and which is converted into a bad act and is disrespected - that is declared to be of the Tamas.
Shri Purohit Swami
17.22 And that which is given at an unsuitable place or time or to one who is unworthy, or with disrespect or contempt - such a gift is the result of Ignorance.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
17.20-22 Datavyam etc. upto udahrtam. With the thought that ‘One must give’ : thinking that the [scriptural] injunction ‘One must give’ is to be obeyed in order to avoid sin. Very much vexed : because of the fault of [giving] very little. A gift is converted into a bad one by offending its recipient, and so on. Thus the activities of the worldly men are explained on the basis of their three-fold intentions born of the Sattva and so on. How do those persons perform actions, whose intellect has gone beyond the region, that is impassable because of the triad of the Strands ? Now that manner is described as -
17.22 That gift which is given to unworthy recipients at wrong place and time, without due respect, viz., without showing such signs of respect as cleansing the feet; with contempt, viz., with disdain and without courtesy - that is said to be of Tamasa nature.
So far, the divisions due to differences of Gunas in respect of sacrifices, austerities and gifts as enjoined by the Vedas have been portrayed. Now is given the definition of Vedic sacrifices etc., according to their association with Pranava (i.e., the syllable Om), and as signified by the terms Tat and Sat.
17.22 Tat, that; danam, gift; yat, which; diyate, is given; adesakale, at an improper place and time-in an unholy place full of barbarians and impure things, etc.; at an improper time: which is not well known as productive of merit; without such specially as Sankranti etc.-; and apatrhyah, to undeserving persons, to fools, thieves and others;-and even when the place etc. are proper-asatkrtam, without proper treatment, without sweet words, washing of feet, worship, etc.; and avajnatam, with disdain, with insults to the recipient; is udahrtam, declared to be; tamasam, born of tamas. This advice is being imparted for making sacrifices, gifts, austerities, etc. perfect:
17.22 That gift which is given at the wrong place and wrong time to unworthy recipients, without due respect and with contempt, is called the gift of Tamasa nature.
17.22 The gift which is made at an improper place and time, and to undeserving persons, without proper treatment and with disdain, is declared to be born of tamas.
17.22 The gift that is given at a wrong place and time, to unworthy persons, without respect or with insult is declared to be Tamasic.
17.22 अदेशकाले at a wrong place and time? यत् which? दानम् gift? अपात्रेभ्यः to unworthy persons? च and? दीयते is given? असत्कृतम् without respect? अवज्ञातम् with insult? तत् that? तामसम् Tamasic? उदाहृतम् is declared to be.Commentary Adesakale At a wrong place and time At a place which is not holy? where irreligious people congregate and where beggars assemble? where wealth acired through illegal means such as gambling? theft? etc.? is distributed to gamblers? singers? fools? rogues? women of evil reputation and at a time which is not auspicious. But? this does not discourage giving alms or other charity to the poor and the needy. In their case these restrictions do not apply.Without respect? etc. Without pleasant speech? without the washing of feet or without worship? although the gift is made at a proper time and place.The donor does not give in good faith although he gets a worthy recipient. He never bends his head in worship. He does not offer him a seat. He treats him with contempt or disrespect.Lord Krishna says to Arjuna I have described that faith? charity? austerity? food? etc.? are invariably coloured by the three alities. There was no desire on My part to refer to the lower ones but to distinguish the highest purity it was necessary to point out the mark of the other two. When the two are set aside? the third is more clearly appreciated in the same way as if day and night are removed the twilight is seen better. Even so be avoiding passion and darkness? the third? viz.? purity or Sattva becomes vividly clear and purity which is the best can be easily realised. Thus in order to show thee the real nature of purity? I have described the other two? so that laying them aside? and resorting to the highest thou mayest attain the goal? viz.? Moksha.