विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् | श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ||१७-१३||
vidhihīnamasṛṣṭānnaṃ mantrahīnamadakṣiṇam . śraddhāvirahitaṃ yajñaṃ tāmasaṃ paricakṣate ||17-13||
17.13. That sacrifice they declare to be of the Tamas (Strand) which is devoid of scriptural injunction, in which there is no [recitation of] Vedic hymns, where no food and [sacrifical] fee are distributed, and which is totally devoid of faith.
Shri Purohit Swami
17.13 Sacrifice that is contrary to scriptural command, that is unaccompanied by prayers or gifts of food or money, and is without faith - that is the product of Ignorance.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
17.11-13 Aphala-etc. upto paricaksate. Stabilizing mind : by firmly believing. Also for the sake of display etc. Display : an intention ‘Let the world take me to be of this natrue’. That which is devoid of scriptural injunction : that which is devoid of rituals prescribed in the scriptures. The same [feature] is elaborated by the attributives ‘That in which no food is distributed’ etc.
17.13 They say that sacrifice is Tamasa, which is bereft of the authority of injunction of Brahmanas of learning and good conduct as ‘Do this sacrifice,’ which is ‘Asrstanna’ viz., which uses offerings (materials) not sanctioned by the Sastras; which is performed without recitation of hymns; and which is bereft of gifts and faith.
Now, to explain the threefold division of austerities according to their source in the Gunas, Sri Krsna describes their differences in respect of the body, speech and mind:
17.13 Paricaksate, they delclare; that yajnam, sacrifice; as tamasam, done through tamas; which is vidhi-hinam, contrary to injunction, opposed to what is enjoined; asrstannam, in which food is not distributed-a sacrifice in which food (annam) is not distributed (asrstam) to Brahmanas; mantra-hinam, in which mantras are not used, which is bereft of mantras, intonation and distinct pronunciation; adaksinam, in which offerings are not made to priests as prescribed; and which is sraddha-virahitam, devoid of faith. After that, now is being stated the three kinds of austerity:
17.13 That sacrifice which is bereft of authority, which uses offerings not sanctioned by the Sastras, which is performed without recitation of hymns and bereft of gifts and faith - that, they say, is marked by Tamas.
17.13 They declare that sacrifice as ‘done through tamas’ which is contrary to injunction, in which food is not distributed, in which mantras are not used, in which offerings are not made to priests, and which is devoid of faith.
17.13 They declare that sacrifice to be Tamasic which is contrary to the ordinances of the scriptures, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of Mantras, gifts and faith.
17.13 विधिहीनम् without keeping to ordinance? असृष्टान्नम् in which no food is distributed? मन्त्रहीनम् which is devoid of Mantras? अदक्षिणम् which is devoid of gifts? श्रद्धाविरहितम् which is devoid of faith? यज्ञम् sacrifice? तामसम् Tamasic? परिचक्षते (they) declare.Commentary A sacrifice performed by a Tamasic man is never guided by any consideration for the prescribed rites or incantation. You will find every irregularity in this sacrifice. No food is distributed. No fees which are prescribed in the scriptures are given to the priests. The Mantras are not changed properly. The hymns recited are defective in utterance and accent. Sometimes there is no recitation at all. There is no faith. A man who performs such a sacrifice does not get any merit.