इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयानघ | एतद्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत ||१५-२०||
iti guhyatamaṃ śāstramidamuktaṃ mayānagha . etadbuddhvā buddhimānsyātkṛtakṛtyaśca bhārata ||15-20||
15.20. Thus the most secret scripture has been taught by Me, O sinless one; by understanding this, let a man become wise and also become one who has accomplished what reires to be accomplished, O descendant of Bharata !
Shri Purohit Swami
15.20 Thus, O Sinless One, I have revealed to thee this most mystic knowledge. He who understands gains wisdom and attains the consummation of life."
Sri Abhinav Gupta
15.20 Iti etc. The most secret [scripture] : Because it explains the oneness of all. One becomes a man of wisdom by knowing this only and not by the knowledge of worldly affairs. One becomes a man of success by just understanding this, and not even by the deeds like the total victory over the foes, earning wealth, enjoying women and so on. The word ca ‘also’ indicates a wonder. Has it not been witnessed that [always] one becomes a man of success by what has been accomplished ? But it is strange that [in the present case one becomes a man of success] by just what has been realised.
The word iti ’thus’ indicates the conclusion of the treatise. For, what is to be taught has come to an end completely. That is why in the Sixteenth Chapter the eligibility of the pupil, Arjuna, is exclusively dealt with; and nothing new is taught. The intention [of that chapter] is to say only this much : ‘The divine wealth is just of that nature; but the devilish wealth born of illusion is of this nature; you (Arjuna) are however endowed with the divine wealth of wisdom’. Hence [the Lord] is going to say ‘Don’t worry. [You are endowed] with the divine wealth’ (XVI, 5). That is why earlier in the context of explaining the clash between the wisdom and ignorance this has been indicated [by me (Ag.)]: ‘It is the confrontation between the wisdom and ignorance that has been detailed under the pretext of [describing] the wars between the gods and devils.’ So, while dealing essentially with the ality of a pupil, other subjects are mentioned incidentally. So also the pair of chapters (Ch. XVII & XVIII) would follow. But the teaching [proper] has come to an end completely here itself. For what is to be achieved is nothing but serving (attaining) the Absolute Lord-the serving, which is of the nature of total absorption into Him by one’s entire being. All other things are only to achieve this end. This has been explained earlier. The Supreme Happiness is indeed nothing but a complete absorption into the Supreme Lord by one’s entire being.
15.20 Thus, this Sastra, the most mysterious of all mysteries and which teaches My aspect as the Supreme Person, has been imparted to you by Me, as you are worthy to receive it because you are sinless. By understanding this, a man will become truly wise and will have fulfilled his duty. Whatever wisdom has to be cultivated for attaining Me, all that should be taken as cultivated and that whatever duty has to be fulfilled in that connection - all that is to be taken as fulfilled by knowing this (the Purusottama Vidya). He gets all spiritual fulfilment by this knowledge, except the direct vision of Purusottama. [Probably the idea is that direct vision comes only when the body falls at the end of the antum of Karma that has brought it into existence. Before that only the state of the Sthitaprajna can be attained. The thin veil of residual Karma still stands in the way.]
15.20 This guhyatamam, most secret, i.e. most mystical;- what is that?-sastram, scripture-. Although the Gita as a whole is spoken of as the scripture, still this chapter itself is here referred to as such, and this for eulogy as is evident from the context. For, not only has the entire meaning of the scripture Gita been stated here in brief, but the whole purport of the Vedas also has been comprehended here. And it has been said, ‘He who realizes it is a knower of the Vedas’ (1), ‘I alone am the object to be known through all the Vedas’ (15). (Thus, this most secret scripture) iti uktam, has thus been uttered; maya, by Me; anagha, O sinless one. O scion of the Bharata dynasty, buddhva, under-standing; etat, this, the scripture which has the purport as has been revealed; syat, one becomes; buddhiman, wise; and krta-krtyah, has his duties fulfilled; but not otherwise. The meaning is that what-ever a Brahmana has to do as a conseence of his special birth (as a Brahmana), all that becomes accomplished when the reality of the Lord is known. The idea is that nobody’s duties become fulfilled in any other way. And it has been said, ‘O son of Prtha, all actions in their totality culminate in Knowledge’ (4.33). There is also a saying from Manu: ‘This, verily, is the fulfilment of a Brahmana in particular. For, by getting this, a twice-born has his duties fulfilled; not otherwise’ (Ma. Sm. 12.93). Since you have heard from Me this truth about the supreme Reality, therefore, O scion of the Bharata dynasty, you have achieved your Goal!
15.20 Thus, O sinless one, has this most mysterious doctrine been imparted by Me. By understanding this, a man will become truly wise and will have fulfilled his duty.
15.20 O sinless one, this most secret scripture has thus been uttered by Me. Understanding this, one becomes wise and has his duties fulfilled, O scion of the Bharata dynasty.
15.20 Thus, this most secret science has been taught by Me, O sinless one; on knowing this, a man becomes wise, and all his duties are accomplished, O Arjuna.
15.20 इति thus? गुह्यतमम् most secret? शास्त्रम् science (teaching)? इदम् this? उक्तम् has been taught? मया by Me? अनघ O sinless one? एतत् बुद्ध्वा knowing this? बुद्धिमान् wise? स्यात् will become? कृतकृत्यः (who has) accomplished all the duties? च and? भारत O Bharata.Commentary Guhyatamam Most profound secret.Buddhiman means here a knower of the Self or Atmart.The knowledge of the Self which gives emancipation from the round of birth and death? and freedom from the bonds of Karma is eulogised in this verse. If this most profound teaching is rightly understood? known or realised? it makes a man wise and gives him illumination. After this there is nothing left for him to know or strive for. He has reached the goal of life or the aim of human existence. He has arrived at the end of his journey. His endeavour for Selfrealisation is over. He has attained perfection. He has complete knowledge of the Supreme Being. He gets Brahma Jnana. He moves in the consciousness of the Divine. He beholds the Self everywhere. He lives in Brahman. He regards all activities as His divine play.When one realises Brahman? he has discharged all the duties of life. He is liberated from the bonds of Karma. He becomes a Jivanmukta or illumined sage who has transcended the bodyconsciousness? the three alities of Nature? the three states of consciousness (wakeful state? dream and deep sleep)? the pairs of opposites and the cycle of birth and death. He knows fully well that rirth has been destroyed? that what has to be done has been accomplished? that lifes highest goal has been reached and that he has nothing more to do or to learn. He has understood the profound mystery of life – the riddle of this universe. He is a Sarvavit or allknower.The whole of the Gita is called science? yet the fifteenth discourse alone is here declared as the science for the sake of eulogising it. The fifteenth discourse contains the intessence of the Gita? the Upanishads and the Vedas. This is the butter churned from the milk of the Vedas. It has been said that? He who knows the peepul tree knows the Veda (XV.1). The Lord has also said? It is I Who am to be known by all the Vedas (XV.15). Only when a man knows this science as taught above does he become wise – but not otherwise. Whatever duty a Brahmana of the highest birth has to do? all that has been doen when one attains the knowledge of the Self. All actions in their entirety culminate in knowledge (IV.33). This is the fulfilment of the birth? particularly of a Brahmana because the twicorn accomplishes all his duties only by attaining to this? but not otherwise? says Manu Smriti.As you have heard from Me this truth about the Supreme Being? you are a happy man and you have done all your duties you have attained Selfrealistion.By using the words Anagha and Bharata? Lord Krishna hints that even when an ordinary man who knows this fifteenth discourse can attain knowledge of the Self and become a Kritakritya? then what to say of Arjuna who was sinless and who was born in a noble family with divine attributes The Lord? by using the word Anagha? also indicates that the Guru who is a knower of Brahman should instruct the most profound secret (the science of the Self) only to alified persons who are free from impurities of the heart or tossing of the mind? who are calm and endowed with the four means of salvation. The man of impure mind will not be able to grasp the truth. The sinful man with his perverted intellect will distort the truth and thus pave the way for the destruction of himself and his followers.Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita? the science of the Eternal? the scripture of Yoga? the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna? ends the fifteenth discourse entitledThe Yoga of the Supreme Spirit. ,,