उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युधाहृतः |
यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः ||१५-१७||


uttamaḥ puruṣastvanyaḥ paramātmetyudhāhṛtaḥ .
yo lokatrayamāviśya bibhartyavyaya īśvaraḥ ||15-17||



15.17. But the Highest Person, distinct [from both this] is spoken of as the Supreme Self, which, being the changeless Lord, sustains the triad of the world by entering into it.

Shri Purohit Swami

15.17 But higher than all am I, the Supreme God, the Absolute Self, the Eternal Lord, Who pervades the worlds and upholds them all.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

15.17 See Comment under 15.18

Sri Ramanuja

15.17 But there is the ‘Supreme Person who is other than the bound and liberated selves’ expressed by the terms, the ‘perishable’ and the ‘imperishable’. He forms a completely different category. All Srutis call Him the Supreme Self. But by that very designation as the Supreme Self, it may be known that the Supreme Person is a category distinct from the bound and the liberated selves. How? ‘Entering the threefold world,’ supports it. ‘Loka’ (world) is that which is perceived. There are three such perceivable worlds, He enters the ’three worlds’ which can be understood from the authority of the Srutis. These are the world of unconscient matter, the world of conscient selves conjoined with matter, and the world of liberated selves. As understandable from the Srutis, He enters into these three categories as their Atman and supports them. Thus, He is an entity different from the triad which He pervades and maintains. Further He is different, as He is imperishable and as He is the Lord. Being imperishable, He is different from the bound non-conscient matter whose nature is subject to decay. He is different from the bound conscient selves as the latter is subject to Prakrti and follows its laws. He is also distinguished from the liberated selves, because in their previous condition they were connected with matter and mixed with it. Similarly, He is the Lord of these ’three worlds,’ a category distinct from those which have to be ruled.

Sri Shankaracharya

15.17 Tu, but; anyah, different, entirely contrary in characteristics from these; is the uttamah, supreme, most excellent; purusah, Person, who is different in characteristics from these-the mutable and the immutable-, untouched by the mutable and the immutable limiting adjuncts, and is by nature eternal, pure, conscious and free; udahrtah, spoken of in the Upanisads; iti, as; the paramatma, supreme Self; He is paramah, supreme, as compared with the selves like body etc. created by ignorance, and is the atma, Self, the inmost Consciousness of all beings. Hence He is the supreme Self. He Himself is being specially described: yah, who, by dint of His own active power inhering in the energy that is Maya; [Caitanya, consciousness, itself is the bala (energy); the sakti (active power) therein is Maya. Through that He upholds.] avisya, permeating; loka-trayam, the three worlds-called Bhuh (Earth), Bhuvah, (Intermediate Space) and Svah (Heaven); bibharti, upholds (them) by merely being present in His own nature. (And He) is the avyayah, imperishable; isvarah, God, the Omniscient One called Narayana, who is the Lord by nature. This name-the supreme Person-of God as described is well known. Showing that the name is apt by virtue of its etymological significance, the Lord reveals Himself saying, ‘I am the unsurpassable God’:

Swami Adidevananda

15.17 There is the Supreme Person other than these. He is named the Supreme Self (Paramatma) in all the Vedas. He who, as the Immutable One and the Lord, entering the threefold world, supports it.

Swami Gambirananda

15.17 But different is th supreme Person who is spoken of as the transcendental Self, who, permeating the three worlds, upholds (them), and is the imperisahble God.

Swami Sivananda

15.17 But distinct is the Supreme Purusha called the highest Self, the indestructible Lord Who, pervading the three worlds, sustains them.


Swami Sivananda

15.17 उत्तमः the Supreme? पुरुषः Purusha? तु but? अन्यः another? परमात्मा the highest? Self? इति thus? उदाहृतः called? यः who? लोकत्रयम् the three worlds? आविश्य pervading? बिभर्ति sustains? अव्ययः the indestructible? ईश्वरः Lord.Commentary Purushottama is beyond the universe though He pervades the three worlds. Therefore He is called the Supreme Being by the Vedas and men of this world. He pervades the three worlds and upholds them yet? He is not tainted by the world. He is above the world or worldliness.Just as the waking state is different from the dram or the deep sleep states? just as the orb of the sun is different from his rays or the mirage they casue? so also is the highest Purusha different from the perishable and the imperishable Purushas.The highest Purusha is the haven of peace. In Him all take their refuge and eternal rest. He is incomparable for He is selfcontained there is nothing like Him. He can only be compared to Himself. The imperishable Being (Akshara Brahman) Who is beyond the world and the Avyaktam (the Unmanifested) are essentially the same as the Purushottama Who transcends both the Kshara and the Akshara.The Purushottama is ite distinct from the two – Kshara and Akshara. He is the Supreme Being. The physical body? the astral body and the causal body are also termed the Self. But these are secondary selves. Paramatma or the Supreme Self is the primary Self. Purushottama or Paramatma is the supreme or the highest when compared with the other secondary selves created by ignorance. He is the innermost consciousness of all beings. He is the support of everything. He is the Niyanta? the Inner Ruler. He is independent. Therefore He is known as the Supreme Self in the Vedanta.Anyah Another? ite distinct from the two.Lokatrayam The three worlds Bhuh (the earth)? Bhuvah (the midregion) and Svah (heaven) are the three worlds.Purushottama is further described as follows He is the imperishable and omniscient Lord Narayana Who permeates the three worlds by His vital energy and sustains them by His mere existence in them.Avyaya Imperishable? that which is free from the modifications such as birth? death? etc. Just as the king who rules his subjects and controls them is distinct from them? so also the Supreme Being Who is the ruler of the perishable and the imperishable is distinct from them. (Cf.VIII.20)