रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत |
रजः सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस्तथा ||१४-१०||


rajastamaścābhibhūya sattvaṃ bhavati bhārata .
rajaḥ sattvaṃ tamaścaiva tamaḥ sattvaṃ rajastathā ||14-10||



14.10. O descendant of Bharata ! The Sattva increases by overpowering the Rajas and the Tamas; the Rajas [increases by overpowering] the Sattva and the Tamas; and the Tamas does likewise [by overpowering] the Sattva and the Rajas.

Shri Purohit Swami

14.10 O Prince! Purity prevails when Passion and Ignorance are overcome; Passion, when Purity and Ignorance are overcome; and Ignorance when it overcomes Purity and Passion.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

14.9-10 Sattvam etc. Rajah etc. Dominates fully i.e. sets [to work]. The Sattva flourishes by overpowering the Rajas and the Tamas. But, the Rajas [flourishes by overpowering] both the Sattva and the Tamas; and the Tamas [does so by overpowering] both the Sattva and the Rajas. That has been stated :

‘The Strands augment by overpowering each other’.

Sri Ramanuja

14.10 Even though all the three Gunas of Sattva etc., are associated with the nature of the self conjoined with Prakrti in the form of body, yet owing to the dominance of previous Karmas and the differences in the food nourishing the body, Sattva etc., preponderate or are subdued by turn. Sometimes Sattva preponderates prevailing over Rajas and Tamas; sometimes Rajas preponderates prevailing over Tamas and Sattva, and sometimes Tamas preponderates prevailing over Rajas and Sattva.

He teaches that this changing preponderance of the Gunas can be inferred from the knowledge of the effects produced by them.

Sri Shankaracharya

14.10 O scion of the Bharata dynasty, sattva bhavati, increases, comes into being; abhibhuya, by subduing both rajas and tamas. When sattva increases, then, coming to its own, it produces its own effects-knowledge, happiness, etc. Similarly, when the ality of rajas increases by overpowering both sattva and tamas, then it produces its own effects-activity and hankering. When the ality called tamas increases by similarly dominating over sattva and rajas, it then produces its own effects-obscuring of knowledge, etc. When any ality preponderates, then what is its indication? This is being answered:

Swami Adidevananda

14.10 Prevailing over Rajas and Tamas, Sattva preponderates, O Arjuna. Prevailing over Tamas and Sattva, Rajas preponderates. Prevailing over Rajas and Sattva, Tamas preponderates.

Swami Gambirananda

14.10 O scion of the Bharata dynasty, sattva increases by subduing rajas and tamas, rajas by overpowering sattva and tamas, and tamas by dominating over sattva and rajas.

Swami Sivananda

14.10 Now Sattva arises (prevails), O Arjuna, having overpowered Rajas and Tamas; nor Rajas, having overpowered Sattva and Tamas; and now Tamas, having overpowered Sattva and Rajas.


Swami Sivananda

14.10 रजः Rajas? तमः inertia? च and? अभिभूय having overpowered? सत्त्वम् Sattva? भवति arises? भारत O Arjuna? रजः Rajas? सत्त्वम् Sattva? तमः inertia? च and? एव even? तमः inertia? सत्त्वम् purity? रजः active force? तथा also.Commentary Just as winter has its sway when summer and autumn have gone? just as sleep has its sway when a man is neither dreaming nor waking? so also Sattva has its sway when Rajas and Tamas are suppressed and makes people say that they are happy. The Sadhana for increasing Sattva is given in the 17th and 18th chapters.Each ality acts in its own turn at different times. All the three alities cannot operate at one and the same time. When one ality asserts itself or prdominates by overpowering or suppressing the other two? it produces its own effect. Sattva produces knowledge and happiness Rajas action Tamas veiling of knowledge? inertia? error? indolence? sloth and sleep. When Sattva is in the ascendant in a man? he is endowed with discrimination. Sublime thoughts roll in his mind. He has pure understanding. His mind turns away from sensual pleasures and moves inward towards the Self.What is the characteristic mark by which you can know that a particular ality is predominant or is in the ascendant The answer is given in the following three verses.