यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति |
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा ||१३-३१||


yadā bhūtapṛthagbhāvamekasthamanupaśyati .
tata eva ca vistāraṃ brahma sampadyate tadā ||13-31||



13.31. When he perceives the [mutual] difference of beings as abiding in One, and its expansion from That alone, at that time he becomes the Brahman.

Shri Purohit Swami

13.31 He who sees the diverse forms of life all rooted in One, and growing forth from Him, he shall indeed find the Absolute.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

13.31 See Comment under 13.34

Sri Ramanuja

13.31 When he perceives that the diversified ‘modes of existence’ of all beings as men, divinities etc., are founded on the two principles of Prakrti and Purusa; when he perceives that their existence as divine, human, short, tall etc., is rooted in ‘one’ common foundation, namely, in the Prakrti, and not in the self; when he sees that ’their expansion’, i.e., the successive proliferaton into sons, grandsons and such varieties of beings, is from Prakrti alone - then he reaches the brahman. The meaning is that he attains the self devoid of limitations, in Its pure form of knowledge.

Sri Shankaracharya

13.31 Yada, when, at the time when; anupasyati, one realizes-having reflected in accordance with the instructions of the scriptures and the teachers, one realizes as a matter of one’s own direct experience that ‘All this is but the Self’ (Ch. 7.25.2); that bhuta-prthak-bhavam, the state of diversity of living things; is ekastham, rooted in the One, existing in the one Self; and their vistaram, manifestation, origination; tatah, eva, is also from That-when he realizes that origination in such diverse ways as, ’the vital force is from the Self, hope is from the Self, memory [Smara, memory; see Sankaracarya’s Comm. on Ch. 7.13.1.-Tr.] is from the Self, space is from the Self, fire is from the Self, water is from the Self, coming into being and withdrawal are owing to the Self, food is from the Self’ (op. cit. 7.26.1); tada, then, at that time; brahma sampadyate, one becomes identified with Brahman Itself. This is the import. If the same Self be the Self in all the bodies, then there arises the possiblity of Its association with their defects. Hence this is said:

Swami Adidevananda

13.31 When he perceives the independent modes of existence of all beings centred in one, and as also their expansion from It alone, then he attains to brahman.

Swami Gambirananda

13.31 When one realizes that the state of diversity of living things is rooted in the One, and that their manifestation is also from That, then one becomes identified with Brahman.

Swami Sivananda

13.31 When a man sees the whole variety of beings as resting in the One, and spreading forth from That alone, he then becomes Brahman.


Swami Sivananda

13.31 यदा when? भूतपृथग्भावम् the whole variety of beings? एकस्थम् resting in the One? अनुपश्यति sees? ततः from that? एव alone? च and? विस्तारम् the spreading? ब्रह्म Brahman? सम्पद्यते (he) becomes? तदा then.Commentary A man attains to unity with the Supreme when he knows or realises through intuition that all these manifold forms are rooted in the One. As waves in water? atoms in the earth? rays in the sun? organs in the body? emotions in the mind? sparks in the fire? so verily are all forms rooted in the One. Wherever he turns his gaze he beholds only the one Self and enjoys the bliss of the Self.When he beholds the diversity of beings rooted in the One in accordance with the teachings of the scriptures and the preceptor? he realises through intuitive experience that all that he beholds is nothing but the Self and that the origin and the evolution of all is from That One alone. Compare with the Chhandogya Upanishad? 7.26.1.आत्मतः प्राण आत्मत आशा आत्मतः स्मरआत्मत आकाश आत्मतस्तेज आत्मत आपःआत्मत आविर्भावतिरोभावावात्मतोऽन्नम्।।Atmatah prana atmata asa atmatah smaraAtmata akasa atmatasteja atmata apahAtmata avirbhavatirobhavavatmatonnam.From the Self is life from the Self is desire from the Self is love from the Self is ether from the Self is light from the Self are the waters from the Self is appearance and disappearance from the Self is food.