य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह | सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ||१३-२४||
ya evaṃ vetti puruṣaṃ prakṛtiṃ ca guṇaiḥ saha . sarvathā vartamāno.api na sa bhūyo.abhijāyate ||13-24||
13.24. He who knows, in this manner, the Soul and the Material Cause together with Strands-he is not born again, even though he behaves in different ways.
Shri Purohit Swami
13.24 He who understands God and Nature along with her qualities, whatever be his condition in life, he comes not again to earth.
Sri Abhinav Gupta
13.24 Ya evam etc. a men of Yoga who knows the Material Cause, the Soul, the Strands and their modifications in this manner i.e., by means of this above mentioned Brahman-perception which is in the form ‘All are identical with It’ - he is certainly emancipated eventhough he behaves in different ways i.e., in whatever manner [he chooses].
13.24 He who ‘understands’, namely, knows truly with discrimination, the self to be thus, and also the Prakrti as having the aforesaid nature along with Sattva and other Gunas, whose nature will be later examined, is never born again, i.e., is never rorn conjointly with Prakrti again in ‘whatever state he may be placed,’ i.e., in whatever painful condition he may be placed in the bodies of divinities, men etc. The meaning is that at the time when the body ceases to exist, the self will attain the purified state characterised by boundless knowledge devoid of evil.
13.24 Sah yah, he who; vetti, knows, in the manner described; the purusam, Person, that Self possessed of the characteristics stated above, as ‘I myself (am That)’; and knows prakrtim, Nature as described above, which is characterized as ignorance; to have been eradicated by Knowledge, saha, along with; gunaih, the alities which are its modifications; na abhijayate, will not be born; bhuyah, again-after the fall of this body of the man of realization, he does not become born again for (taking) another body, i.e. he does not take up another body; sarvatha api, in whatever way; vartamanah, he may live. From the word api it is understood that, it goes without saying that one who is firm in his own duty is not rorn. Objection: Though it has been said that there is absence of rirth after the dawn of Knowledge, still is not illogical that actions done (in the present life) before the rise of Knowledge and those done subseently, as also those done in the many past lives, should be destroyed without yielding their results? Hence there should be three births! For destruction of acired merit is not logical, to the same extent as actions that have produced the present birth and are yielding their proper results (cannot be destroyed). Besides, it is not understood that actions have distinctions [Since all actions arise from ignorance, they are on the same level so far so they are opposed to Knowledge; i.e., there can be no such distinction among actions as ’those which have started yielding results’ and ’those that have not’.]. Therefore, the actions of the three kinds, without exception, will produce three births or they all collectively will produce one birth. Otherwise, if the acired merits become destroyed, it will lead to loss of faith everywhere as well as to the purposelessness of scriptures. Therefore it has been illogical to say, ‘he will not be born again.’ Reply: No, for the burning away of all the actions of the man of knowledge has been stated in hundreds of Upanisadic texts such as: ‘And all one’s actions become dissipated’ (Mu. 2.2.8); ‘Anyone who knows (that supreme) Brahman, becomes Brahman’ (op. cit. 3.2.9); ‘For him the delay is for so long only (as he does not become freed)’ (Ch. 6.14.2); ‘As the fibres at the tip of a blade of reed (become completely burnt৷৷.,’ so) all actions ‘get completely burnt’ (op. cit. 5.24.3). Here too the burning of all actions has been stated in, ‘as a blazing fire reduces pieces of wood to ashes,৷৷.’etc. (4.37), and He will also say so (later) [See 18.66: ‘I shall free you from all sins,’ etc.-Tr.]. This accords with reason also. Verily, actions, which arise from the seed of evils [Klesas, evils-see note under 8.19-Tr.] like ignorance and desires, germinate the sprout of rirth. Here also it has been said by the Lord in various places that actions which are associated with egoism and desire for results bear fruits, not the others. And there is also the verse: ‘As seeds burnt by fire do not germinate, so also the Self does not acire another body due to evils that have been burnt by Knowledge (cf. Mbh. Va. 199. 107). Objection: It may be granted for the present that actions performed after the rise of Knowledge are burnt by Knowledge, since they coexist with Knowledge. But the burning away of actions done in this life prior to the rise of Knowledge and those done in the many past lives is not reasonable. Reply: No, because of the alification, ‘all actions’ (4.37). Objection: May it not be that ‘all actions’ means those that are undertaken after Illumination? Reply: No, for there is no reason for the restriction (of the meaning). On the other hand, as for the statement, ‘just as actions that have produced the present birth and are already active in producing their results do not get dissipated even after Illumination, similarly it is not reasonable that actions which have not commenced producing their results should get dissipated,’-that is wrong. Objection: Why? Reply: Since they have already begun producing results, like an arrow that has been shot: As an arrow, freed earlier from a bow for hitting a target, even after piercing through the target comes to a stop only after falling down as a result of the dissipation of its initial momentum, similarly, actions that produced the (present) body verily continue, even after fulfilling the purpose of maintaining the body, to exist as before until the dissipation of their inherent tendencies. But, as that very arrow, when it has not acired the momentum, needed for action, when it has not been shot even though fixed on the bow, can be withdrawn, similarly, actions which have not begun yielding their results may be rendered unproductive by Knowledge, even while existing in their receptacle. [The internal organ bearing the reflection of Consciousness.] Hence, it is established that , it has been reasonable to state that on the fall of the present body of an enlightened person, ‘He is not born again.’ Here are being presented these meditation etc. which are the alternative means for the realization of the Self:
13.24 He who understands the self and the Prakrti thus with the Gunas is not born again, in whatever state he may be placed.
13.24 He who knows thus the Person and Nature along with the alities will not be born again, in whatever way he may live.
13.24 He who thus knows the Spirit and Matter together with the alities, in whatever condition he may be, he is not born again.
13.24 यः who? एवम् thus? वेत्ति knows? पुरुषम् Purusha? प्रकृतिम् Prakriti? च and? गुणैः alities? सह with? सर्वथा in all ways? वर्तमानः living? अपि also? न not? सः he? भूयः again? अभिजायते is born.Commentary One who knows the Soul and Nature with its alities? whatever his conduct may be? frees himself from the cycle of births and deaths. Such is the advantage he gains from the discriminative knowledge of Spirit and Matter. He knows that he is eternal and changeless and that all changes are due to the modifications of Nature on account of its alities. The self through ignorance identifies itself with the body and suffers rirth.In whatsoever condition he may be? whether he is engaged in prescribed or forbidden acts (like Indra who killed the Purohita Visvarupa and many Sannyasins)? he is not born again? because the,actions (which are the seeds of rirth)? of one who knows the Spirit and Matter? who has gained the knowledge of the Self? are burnt by the fire of that knowledge. Just as the seeds that are fried in fire do not sprout again? so also the actions burnt in the fire of knowledge cannot produce new bodies or further births. In his case they are Karmabhasa (mere semblance of Karma). They are not effective causes and cannot produce further births. A burnt cloth cannot serve the purpose of the cloth.Those actions which are done with egoism and desire (expectation of fruits) will produce fruits or results. In the case of a wise man? the seeds of evil? viz.? ignorance? egoism? attachment? etc.? are burnt by the fire of knowledge. Therefore he cannot have rirths.The Karmas (Prarabdha) which have already started their operation by producing this present birth do not perish? notwithstanding the dawn of the knowledge of the Self. When an arrow is once sent out from a bow at a mark? it pierces the mark and continues to act till it falls to the ground when the full force with which it was dischared is exhausted. Even so the Prarabdha Karma which has given rise to the body continues to act till the inherent force is fully exhausted? although the sage has attained Selfrealisation through his body. But he is not in the least affected by this? because he has no identification with the body? and as he has identified himelf with Brahman or the Absolute. If a carbuncle or cancer arises in the body on account of Prarabdha Karma? he will not suffer a bit as he has risen above bodyconsciousness? and as he stands as a witness of his body. But a bystander or a spectator wrongly imagines that the liberated sage is also suffering like an ordinary worldly man. This is a serious and sad mistake. From the viewpoint of the liberated sage he has neither body nor Prarabdha Karma.An arrow that is placed ready on the bow but not discharged with force can be withdrawn. Similarly? the Karmas which have not begun to generate their fruits or effects can be neutralised or destroyed by the knowledge of the Self. Therefore it is proper to say that the liberated sage is not born again. He will not take another body when the body through which he attained knowledge perishes. As ignorance? the cause of this body? is destroyed by the knowledge of the Self? birth? the effect of ignorance? is also destroyed. As one takes birth through virtuous and vicious actions? a sage will not take birth as his virtuous and visiouc actions (the whole Sanchita or accumulated Karmas of his previous births) are destroyed by the knowledge of the Self. The Karmas done by him after he has attained Selfrealisation cannot touch him at all as he has neither egoism (agency) nor desires. (Cf.XIII.32)