अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् |
एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ||१३-१२||


adhyātmajñānanityatvaṃ tattvajñānārthadarśanam .
etajjñānamiti proktamajñānaṃ yadato.anyathā ||13-12||



13.12. Constancy in the Self-knowledge; and viewing things of knowing the Reality-all this is declared to be [conducive to or manifesting] true knowledge, and what is opposed to this is [conducive to or manifesting] wrong knowledge.

Shri Purohit Swami

13.12 Constant yearning for the knowledge of Self, and pondering over the lessons of the great Truth - this is Wisdom, all else ignorance.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

13.8-12 Amanitvam etc. upto anyatha. [Devotion] with me Yoga of non-difference etc. : a conviction, ‘There exists nothing else different from the Mighty Lord, the Supreme Soul,’ - a conviction, which allows no difference and is itself a Yoga, i.e. a devotion in the form of this conviction. Hence this never fails. For, either the desires that are considered to be causes for failure are absent, or those desires which are of the form of mind-modifications, are completely absorbed in Him alone. The above may be borne in mind in all [other] cases too. What is opposed to this is [conducive to] wrong knowledge : such as pride and others. That which is to be known by this knowledge is described [as] -

Sri Ramanuja

13.12 ‘Adhyatma-jnana’ is the knowledge that pertains to the self. Reflection for the attainment of knowledge of the truth, namely, being always intent in the thought having for its object the knowledge of the truth. ‘Knowledge’ is that by which the self is realised. The meaning is that it is the means for the knowledge of the self. The group of attributes mentioned before, beginning with modesty etc., are those that are favourable for the knowledge of the self in association with the body. All the evolutes of Ksetra, which are different from those mentioned above, constitute ignorance, as they are antagonistic to the knowledge of the self.

Now, the nature of Ksetrajna, characterised as the knower in the stanza, ‘He who knows it’ (13.1), is examined:

Sri Shankaracharya

13.12 Adhyatma-jnana-nityatvam, steadfastness in the knowledge of the Self: adhyatma-jnanam is the knowledge of the Self, etc.; constant dwelling in that is nityatvam. Tattva-jnanartha-darsanam, contemplating on the Goal of the knowledge of Reality: Tattva-jnanam is that (realization of Truth) which arises from the fruition of application to the disciplines like humility etc. which are the means to knowledge. Its Goal (artha) is Liberation, the cessation of mundane existence. Contemplation (darsana) on that is tattva-jnana-artha-darsanam. For, when one engages in contemplation on the result of the knowledge of Reality, one gets the urge to undertake the disciplines which are its means. Etat, this-those that have been stated from ‘humility’ etc. to ‘contemplation on the Goal of the knowledge of Reality’; proktam, is spoken of; iti, as; jnanam, Knowledge, because they are meant to lead one to Knowledge. Ajnanam, ignorance; is yat, that which is; anyatha, other; atah, than this-what has been stated above. Contrarily, arrogance, pretentiousness, cruelty, revenge, insincerity, etc. are to be known as ignorance so that, since they are the cause of the origination of worldly existence, they can be avoided. To the estion as to what is to be known through the aforesaid Knowledge, the Lord says, ‘I shall speak of that which is to be known,’ etc. Objection: Do not humility etc. constitute yama and niyama [See fn. on p. 239.-Tr.]? The Knowable is not known through them. For humility etc. are not seen to determine the nature of anything. Moreover, everywhere it is observed that whatever knowledge reveals its own object, that itself ascertains the nature of that object of knowledge (the knowable). Indeed, nothing else is known through a knowledge concerning some other object. As for instance, fire is not known through the knowledge of a pot. Reply: This is not a defect, for we have said that they are called ‘Knowledge’ because they lead one to Knowledge, and because they are auxiliary causes of Knowledge.

Swami Adidevananda

13.12 Constant contemplation on the knowledge pertaining to the self, reflection for the attainment of knowledge of the truth - this is declared to be knowledge, and what is contrary to it is ignorance.

Swami Gambirananda

13.12 Steadfastness in the knowledge of the Self, contemplation on the Goal of the knowledge of Reality-this is spoken of as Knowledge. Ignorance is that which is other than this.

Swami Sivananda

13.12 Constancy in Self-knowledge, perception of the end of true knowledge this is declared to be knowledge, and what is opposed to it is ignorance.


Swami Sivananda

13.12 अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वम् constancy in Selfknowledge? तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् perception of the end of true knowledge? एतत् this? ज्ञानम् knowledge? इति thus? प्रोक्तम् declared? अज्ञानम् ignorance? यत् which? अतः from it? अन्यथा opposed.Commentary The liberated sage has constant awareness of the Self. He knows that knowledge of the Self alone is permanent and all other learning relating to this world is ignorance. He knows that the knowledge which leads to the realisation of the Self is the only truth.These attributes beginning with humility are declared to be knowledge? because they are conducive to knowledge they are the means to knowledge. They are secondary or auxiliary causes of knowledge. The fruit of this knowledge of the Self is deliverance from the round of births and deaths. The spiritual aspirant should always keep the end of knowledge in view. Only then will he attempt to develop the various virtues which are conducive to the attainment of knowledge of the Self. What is opposed to knowledge? viz.? lust? anger? greed? pride? hypocrisy? attachment? cunningness? diplomacy? injuring others? is ignorance. These evil traits which are the products of ignorance bind a man to Samsara. If you wish to attain the knowledge of the Self you will have to eradicate these evil traits which stand as stumbling blocks on the path of salvation. If you cultivate the opposite virtues? the evil traits will die by themselves just as the plants which are deprived of water in a garden die by themselves. It is difficult to eradicate the evil traits by fighting against them.