अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च |
अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताहं विश्वतोमुखः ||१०-३३||


akṣarāṇāmakāro.asmi dvandvaḥ sāmāsikasya ca .
ahamevākṣayaḥ kālo dhātāhaṃ viśvatomukhaḥ ||10-33||



10.33. Of the syllables, I am A; of the compounds, the Dvandva; none but Me, is the immortal Time; I am the dispenser [of fruits actions] facing on all sides.

Shri Purohit Swami

10.33 Of letters I am A; I am the copulative in compound words; I am Time inexhaustible; and I am the all-pervading Preserver.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

10.33 See Comment under 10.42

Sri Ramanuja

10.33 Of letters I am the alphabet ‘a’, which is the base of all letters as established in the Sruti: ‘The letter ‘a’ itself is all speech’ (Ai. Ai., 3.2.3). Samasika means collection of compound words. In it, I am the Dvandva compound; it is eminent because the meanings of both constituent terms are important. I am Myself imperishable Time composed of (divisions like) Kala, Muhurta etc. I am the four-faced Hiranyagarbha who is the creator of all.

Sri Shankaracharya

10.33 Aksaranam, of the letters; I am the akarah, letter a. Samasikasya, of the group of compound words, I am the compund (called) Dvandva. Besieds, aham eva, I Myself; am the aksayah, infinite, endless; kalah, time, well known as ‘moment’ etc.; or, I am the supreme God who is Kala (Time, the measurer) even of time. I am the dhata, Dispenser, the dispenser of the fruits of actions of the whole world; visvatomukhah, with faces everwhere.

Swami Adidevananda

10.33 Of letters, I am the alphabet ‘a’. Of compound words, I am the Dvandva (copulative). I am Myself imperishable Time. I am the Creator, facing every side.

Swami Gambirananda

10.33 Of the letters I am the letter a, and of the group of compund words I am (the compound called) Dvandva. [Dvandva: A compound of two or more words which, if not compounded, would stand in the same case and be connected by the conjunction ‘and’.-Tr.] I Mayself am the infinite time; I am the Dispenser with faces everywhere.

Swami Sivananda

10.33 Among the letters of the alphabets, the letter ‘A’ I am and the dual among the compounds. I am verily the inexhaustible or everlasting time; I am the dispenser (of the fruits of actions) having faces in all directions.


Swami Sivananda

10.33 अक्षराणाम् among letters? अकारः the letter A? अस्मि (I) am? द्वन्द्वः the dual? सामासिकस्य among all compounds? च and? अहम् I? एव verily? अक्षयः the inexhaustible or everlasting? कालः time? धाता the dispenser? अहम् I? विश्वतोमुखः the Allfaced (or having faces in all directions).Commentary Among the alphabets I am the letter A. Among the various kinds of compounds used in Sanskrit language I am the Dvandva (union of the two)? the copulative.Time here refers to the moment? the ultimate element of time or to Paramesvara? the Supreme Lord Who is the time of even time? since He is beyond time.As the Supreme Being is allpervading it is said that He has faces in all directions.