सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्च मध्यं चैवाहमर्जुन |
अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम् ||१०-३२||


sargāṇāmādirantaśca madhyaṃ caivāhamarjuna .
adhyātmavidyā vidyānāṃ vādaḥ pravadatāmaham ||10-32||



10.32. Of the creations, I am the beginning, the end and also the middle, O Arjuna ! Of the sciences, [I am] the science of the Self; of arguers, I am the argument.

Shri Purohit Swami

10.32 I am the Beginning, the Middle and the End in creation; among sciences, I am the science of Spirituality; I am the Discussion among disputants.

Sri Abhinav Gupta

10.32 See Comment under 10.42

Sri Ramanuja

10.32 Those that undergo creation are ‘creatures’. Their beginning is the cause. The meaning is that, of the creatures which are being created at all times, I am Myself the creator. Similarly, I am the end, namely the destroyer of everyone of those who are being destroyed at all times. Similarly I am the middle, namely, the sustentation. The meaning is, I am the sustainer of those who are being sustained at all times. Of those who indulge in Jalpa (argument) and Vitanda (perverse criticism) etc., I am the fair reasoning which determines the truth.

Sri Shankaracharya

10.32 O Arjuna sarganam, of creations; I am the adih, beginning; ca, and ; he antah, end; ca eva, as also; the madhyam, middle-I am the origin, continuance and dissolution. At the commencement (verse 20) origin, end, etc. only of things possessed of souls were spoken of, but here the mention is of all creations in general. This is the difference. Vidyanam, among knowledges; I am the adhyatma-vidya, knowledge of the Self, it being the foremost because of its leading to liberation. Pravadatam, of those who date; aham, I; am vadah, Vada, which is preeminent since it is a means to determining true purport. Hence I am that . By the word pravadatam are here meant the different kinds of date held by dators, viz Vada, Jalpa, and Vitanda. [Vada: discussion with open-mindedness, with a veiw to determining true purport; jalpa: pointless date; Vitanda: wrangling discussion. [Jalpa is that mode of date by which both parties establish their own viewpoint through direct and indirect proofs, and refute the view of the opponent through circumvention (Chala) and false generalization (Jati) and by pointing out unfitness (of the opponent) tobe argued with (Nigraha-sthana). But where one party establishes his viewpoint, and the other refutes it through circumvention, false generalization and showing the unfitness of the opponent to be argued with, without establishing his own views, that is termed Vitanda. Jalpa and Vitanda result only in a trial of streangth between the opponents, who are both desirous of victory, But the result of Vada is the ascertainment of truth between the teacher and the disciple or between others, both unbiased.-Gloss of Sridhara Swami on this verse.]-Tr.]

Swami Adidevananda

10.32 Of creatures, I am the beginning and the end, and also the middle, O Arjuna. Of sciences I am the science of self (of the individual and Universal Self). Of those who argue, I am the fair reasoning.

Swami Gambirananda

10.32 O Arjuna, of creations I am the beginning and the end as also the middle, I am the knowledge of the Self among knowledge; of those who date I am vada.

Swami Sivananda

10.32 Among creations I am the beginning, the middle and also the end, O Arjuna; among the sciences I am the science of the Self; and I am the logic among controversialists.


Swami Sivananda

10.32 सर्गाणाम् among creations? आदिः the beginning? अन्तः the end? च and? मध्यम् the middle? च and? एव also? अहम् I? अर्जुन O Arjuna? अध्यात्मविद्या the science of the Self? विद्यानाम् among sciences? वादः logic? प्रवदताम् among controversialists? अहम् I.Commentary I am the metaphysics among all sciences. I am knowledge of the Self among all branches of knowledge. I am the argument of dators. I am the logic of disputants. I am the speech of orators.In verse 20 above the Lord says? I am the beginning? the middle and the end of the whole movable and immovable creation. Here the whole creation in general is referred to.As the knowledge of the Self leads to the attainment of the final beatitude of life or salvation? it is the chief among all branches of knowledge.Pravadatam By the word controversialists? we should here understand the various kinds of people using various kinds of argumentation in logic such as Vada? Jalpa and Vitanda. Yada is a way of arguing by which one gets at the truth of a certain estion. The aspirants who are free from RagaDvesha and jealousy raise amongst themselves estions and answers and enter into discussions on philosophical problems in order to ascertain and understand the nature of the Truth. They do not argue in order to gain victory over one another. This is Vada. Jalpa is wrangling in which one asserts his own opinion and refutes that of his opponent. Vitanda is idle carping at the arguments of ones opponents. No attempt is made to establish the other side of the estion. In Jalpa and Vitanda one tries to defeat another. There is desire for victory.