धृतराष्ट्र उवाच | धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः | मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ||१-१||
dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca . dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ . māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāścaiva kimakurvata sañjaya ||1-1||
1.1. Dhrtarastra said O Sanjaya ! What did my men and the sons of Pandu do in the Kuruksetra, the field of righteousness, where the entire warring class has assembled ? or O Sanjaya ! What did the selfish intentions and the intentions born of wisdom do in the human body which is the field-of-duties, the repository of the senseorgans and in which all the murderous ones (passions and asceticism etc.) are confronting [each other].
Shri Purohit Swami
1.1 The King Dhritarashtra asked: “O Sanjaya! What happened on the sacred battlefield of Kurukshetra, when my people gathered against the Pandavas?”
Sri Abhinav Gupta
1.1 Dharmaksetre etc. Here some [authors] offer a different explanation as1 :-Kuruksetra : the man’s body is the ksetra i.e., the facilitator, of the kurus, i.e., the sense-organs. 2 The same is the field of all wordly duties, since it is the cuse of their birth; which is also the field of the righteous act that has been described as :
‘This is the highest righteous act viz., to realise the Self by means of the Yogas’;
and which is the protector4 [of the embodied Self] by achieving emancipation [by means of this], through the destruction of all duties. It is the location where there is the confrontation among all ksatras, the murderous ones-because the root ksad means ’to kill’ - viz, passion and asceticism, wrath and forbearance, and others that stand in the mutual relationship of the slayer and the slain. Those that exist in it are the mamakas,-i.e., the intentions that are worthy of man of ignorance and are the products of ignorance-and those that are born of Pandu: i.e., the intentions, of which the soul is the very knowledge itself5 and which are worthy of persons of pure knowledge. What did they do? In other words, which were vanished by what? Mamaka : a man of ignorance as he utters [always] ‘mine'6. Pandu : the pure one.7
1.1 - 1.19 Dhrtarastra said - Sanjaya said Duryodhana, after viewing the forces of Pandavas protected by Bhima, and his own forces protected by Bhisma conveyed his views thus to Drona, his teacher, about the adeacy of Bhima’s forces for conering the Kaurava forces and the inadeacy of his own forces for victory against the Pandava forces. He was grief-stricken within.
Observing his (Duryodhana’s) despondecny, Bhisma, in order to cheer him, roared like a lion, and then blowing his conch, made his side sound their conchs and kettle-drums, which made an uproar as a sign of victory. Then, having heard that great tumult, Arjuna and Sri Krsna the Lord of all lords, who was acting as the charioteer of Arjuna, sitting in their great chariot which was powerful enough to coner the three worlds; blew their divine conchs Srimad Pancajanya and Devadatta. Then, both Yudhisthira and Bhima blew their respective conchs separately. That tumult rent asunder the hearts of your sons, led by Duryodhana. The sons of Dhrtarastra then thought, ‘Our cause is almost lost now itself.’ So said Sanjaya to Dhrtarastra who was longing for their victory.
Sanjaya said to Dhrtarastra: Then, seeing the Kauravas, who were ready for battle, Arjuna, who had Hanuman, noted for his exploit of burning Lanka, as the emblem on his flag on his chariot, directed his charioteer Sri Krsna, the Supreme Lord-who is overcome by parental love for those who take shelter in Him who is the treasure-house of knowledge, power, lordship, energy, potency and splendour, whose sportive delight brings about the origin, sustentation and dissolution of the entire cosmos at His will, who is the Lord of the senses, who controls in all ways the senses inner and outer of all, superior and inferior - by saying, ‘Station my chariot in an appropriate place in order that I may see exactly my enemies who are eager for battle.’
1.1 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment on this sloka. The commentary starts from 2.10.
1.1 Dhrtarastra said On the holy field of Kuruksetra, gathered together eager for battle, what did my people and the Pandavas do, O Sanjaya?
1.1. Dhrtarastra said O Sanjaya, what did my sons (and others) and Pandu’s sons (and others) actually do when, eager for battle, they assembled on the sacred field, the Kuruksetra (Field of the Kurus)?
1.1 Dhritarashtra said What did my people and the sons of Pandu do when they had assembled together eager for battle on the holy plain of Kurukshetra, O Sanjaya.
1.1 धर्मक्षेत्रे on the holy plain? कुरुक्षेत्रे in Kurukshetra? समवेताः assembled together? युयुत्सवः desirous to fight? मामकाः my people? पाण्डवाः the sons of Pandu? च and? एव also? किम् what? अकुर्वत did do? सञ्जय O Sanjaya.Commentary Dharmakshetra – that place which protects Dharma is Dharmakshetra. Because it was in the land of the Kurus? it was called Kurukshetra.Sanjaya is one who has conered likes and dislikes and who is impartial.