Mandala 2

The second Mandala of the Rigveda has 43 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra chiefly attributed to the Rishi Grtsamada. It is one of the “family books” (mandalas 2-7), the oldest core of the Rigveda, which were composed in early vedic period(1500-1000 BCE).

Witzel (1995) on the basis of internal evidence suggested that the second Mandala contains the oldest hymns of the Rigveda.

List of incipits

The dedication as given by Griffith is in square brackets

  • – English translation by Ralph T. H. Griffith