Purushartha (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ, IAST: Puruṣārtha) literally means an “object of human pursuit”

It is a key concept in Hinduism, and refers to the four proper goals or aims of a human life

The four puruṣārthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kama (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Moksha (liberation, spiritual values, self-actualization)

All four Purusharthas are important, but in cases of conflict, Dharma is considered more important than Artha or Kama in Hindu philosophy

Moksha is considered the ultimate ideal of human life

At the same time, this is not a consensus among all Hindus, and many have different interpretations of the hierarchy, and even as to whether one should exist

Historical Indian scholars recognized and debated the inherent tension between active pursuit of wealth (Artha) and pleasure (Kama), and renunciation of all wealth and pleasure for the sake of spiritual liberation (Moksha)

They proposed “action with renunciation” or “craving-free, dharma-driven action”, also called Nishkama Karma as a possible solution to the tension