Bhāvanā (Pali; Sanskrit, also bhāvana) literally means “development” or “cultivating” or “producing” in the sense of “calling into existence”

It is an important concept in Buddhist practice (Patipatti)

The word bhavana normally appears in conjunction with another word forming a compound phrase such as citta-bhavana (the development or cultivation of the heart/mind) or metta-bhavana (the development/cultivation of lovingkindness)

When used on its own, bhavana signifies contemplation and ‘spiritual cultivation’ generally