Bhaga is the Vedic god of fortune, as well as a term for “lord, patron” and “wealth, prosperity”

Bhaga is an Āditya, a group of societal deities who are the sons of Aditi

Bhaga’s responsibility was to make sure that people received a share of the goods in life

He is associated with his brother, Aryaman, regarding the expectation of a successful marriage

The cognate term in Avestan and Old Persian is baga, of uncertain meaning but used in a sense in which “lord, patron, sharer/distributor of good fortune” might also apply

The cognate in Slavic languages is the root bogъ

The semantics is similar to English lord (from hlaford “bread-warden”), the idea being that it is part of the function of a chieftain or leader to distribute riches or spoils among his followers

The name of the city of Baghdad derives from Middle Persian baga-data, “lord-given”

In the Sanskrit Rigveda, bhaga is an epithet of both mortals and gods (e


of Savitr, Indra and Agni) who bestow wealth and prosperity, as well as the personification of a particular god, the Bhaga, who bestows the same

In the Rigveda, the personification is attested primarily in RV 7

41, which is devoted to the praise of the Bhaga and of the deities closest to him, and in which the Bhaga is invoked about 60 times, together with Agni, Indra, the dual Mitra-Varuna, the two Ashvins, Pusan, Brahmanaspati, Soma and Rudra

The Bhaga is also invoked elsewhere in the company of Indra, Varuna and Mitra (e


RV 10

35, 42

The personification is occasionally intentionally ambiguous, as in RV 5

46 where men are portrayed as requesting the Bhaga to share in bhaga

In the Rigveda, the Bhaga is occasionally associated with the sun: in RV 1

123, the Dawn (Ushas) is said to be the Bhaga’s sister, and in RV 1

136, the Bhaga’s eye is adorned with rays

The 5th/6th-century BCE Nirukta (Nir


  1. describes Bhaga as the god of the morning

In the Rigveda, the Bhaga is named as one of the Adityas, the seven (or eight) celestial sons of Aditi, the Rigvedic mother of the gods

In the medieval Bhagavata Purana, the Bhaga reappears with the Puranic Adityas, which are by then twelve solar gods

Elsewhere, the Bhaga continues as a god of wealth and marriage, in a role that is also attested for the Sogdian (Buddhist) equivalent of the Bhaga

The common noun bhaga survives in the 2nd century CE inscription of Rudradaman I, where it is a fiscal term; in bhagavan for “one who possesses (-van) the properties of a bhaga-”, hence itself “lord, god”; and in bhagya, and “that which derives from bhaga”, hence “destiny” as an abstract noun, and also Bhagya personified as the proper name of a son of Surya

Bhaga is also the presiding deity of the Uttara Phalgunī Nakshatra