Surya (;Sanskrit: सूर्य, IAST: Sūrya) is the sun: 399–401  and the solar deity in Hinduism,: 343  particularly in the Saura tradition found in Indian states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha

Surya is one of the major five deities in Hinduism, considered as equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja and means to realize Brahman in the Smarta Tradition

: 113  Synonyms of Surya in ancient Indian literature include Aditya, Arka, Bhanu, Savitr, Pushan, Ravi, Martanda, Mitra, Bhaskara, Prabhakara, Kathiravan, and Vivasvan

: 5, 39, 247, 343, 399–400 The iconography of Surya is often depicted riding a chariot harnessed by horses, often seven in number which represent the seven colours of visible light, and seven days in a week

: 399–401  In medieval Hinduism, Surya was considered to be a manifestation of the Hindu Major Gods Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu

: 343  In some ancient texts and arts, Surya is presented syncretically with Indra, Ganesha or others

: 5, 39, 247, 343, 399–400  Surya as a deity is also found in the arts and literature of Buddhism and Jainism

In the Mahabharata and Ramayana, Surya is present as the spritual father of Lord Rama and Karna(the protagonists of the Mahabharata and Ramayana)

Extensively used as a glorification for the heroes of the epics by Vyasa and Valmiki

Surya was the supreme deity after Lord Shiva during the time of Mahabharata and RamayanaSurya is depicted with a Chakra, also interpreted as Dharmachakra

Surya is the lord of Simha (Leo), one of the twelve constellations in the zodiac system of Hindu astrology

Surya or Ravi is the basis of Ravivara, or Sunday, in the Hindu calendar

Major festivals and pilgrimages in reverence for Surya include Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Samba Dashami, Ratha Sapthami, Chath puja and Kumbh Mela

Having survived as a primary deity in Hinduism arguably better and longer than any other of the original Vedic deities, the worship of Surya declined greatly around the 13th century, perhaps as a result of the Muslim conquest of North India

New Surya temples virtually ceased to be built, and some were later converted to a different dedication

A number of important Surya temples remain, but many are no longer in worship

In certain aspects, Surya has tended to be merged into Vishnu or Shiva, or seen as subsidiary to them