Srimad-Bhagavatam: Canto 5 - Chapter 1 - Verse 5-6


ब्राह्मण उवाचअयं जनो नाम चलन् पृथिव्यांय: पार्थिव: पार्थिव कस्य हेतो: ।तस्यापि चाङ्‌घ्र्योयोरधि गुल्फजङ्घा-जानूरुमध्योरशिरोधरांसा: ॥ ५ ॥अंसेऽधि दार्वी शिबिका च यस्यांसौवीरराजेत्यपदेश आस्ते ।यस्मिन् भवान् रूढनिजाभिमानोराजास्मि सिन्धुष्विति दुर्मदान्ध: ॥ ६ ॥


brāhmaṇa uvācaayaṁ jano nāma calan pṛthivyāṁyaḥ pārthivaḥ pārthiva kasya hetoḥtasyāpi cāṅghryor adhi gulpha-jaṅghā-jānūru-madhyora-śirodharāṁsāḥ


The self-realized brāhmaṇa Jaḍa Bharata said: Among the various material combinations and permutations, there are various forms and earthly transformations. For some reason, these move on the surface of the earth and are called palanquin carriers. Those material transformations which do not move are gross material objects like stones. In any case, the material body is made of earth and stone in the form of feet, ankles, calves, knees, thighs, torso, throat and head. Upon the shoulders is the wooden palanquin, and within the palanquin is the so-called King of Sauvīra. The body of the King is simply another transformation of earth, but within that body Your Lordship is situated and falsely thinking that you are the King of the state of Sauvīra.


After analyzing the material bodies of the palanquin carrier and the palanquin passenger, Jaḍa Bharata concludes that the real living force is the living entity. The living entity is the offshoot or offspring of Lord Viṣṇu; therefore within this material world, among moving and nonmoving things, the real principle is Lord Viṣṇu. Due to His presence, everything is working, and there are actions and reactions. One who understands Lord Viṣṇu as the original cause of everything is to be understood to be perfectly situated in knowledge. Although he was falsely proud of being a king, King Rahūgaṇa was not really situated in knowledge. Therefore he was rebuking the palanquin carriers, including the self-realized brāhmaṇa Jaḍa Bharata. This is the first accusation Jaḍa Bharata made against the King, who was daring to talk to a learned brāhmaṇa from the flimsy ground of ignorance, identifying everything with matter. King Rahūgaṇa argued that the living entity is within the body and that when the body is fatigued the living entity within must therefore be suffering. It is clearly explained in the following verses that the living entity does not suffer due to the body’s fatigue. Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī gives an example of a child heavily decorated with ornaments; although the child’s body is very delicate, he does not feel fatigue, nor do the parents think that his ornaments should be taken away. The living entity has nothing to do with bodily pains and pleasures. These are simply mental concoctions. An intelligent man will find the original cause of everything. Material combinations and permutations may be a matter of fact in worldly dealings, but actually the living force, the soul, has nothing to do with them. Those who are materially upset take care of the body and manufacture daridra-nārāyaṇa (poor Nārāyaṇa). However, it is not a fact that the soul or Supersoul becomes poor simply because the body is poor. These are the statements of ignorant people. The soul and Supersoul are always apart from bodily pleasure and pain.